Cuba is located off the Caribbean islands. The history of Cuba dates back to October 1492 after Christopher Columbus landed on the island with is first voyage of discovery. According to evidence, there existed an indigenous community on the island referred to as Guanajatabey before the arrival of Columbus. The community was driven off to the west by the arrival of the Taino and Ciboney migrants. The Tainon and Cibaney belong to the Arawak community that extended into the larger South America. The Taino community participated in several activities that included cultivation of the yucca root, harvesting, and baking it to produce bread from cassava.
The arrival of Columbus into Cuba made it an automatic Spanish colony. The Spanish gradually began building permanent settlements in the Hispaniola Island located east of Cuba. Orders from Spain necessitated Diego Velazquez de Cuellar to move to Cuba and eventually conquer it. The Spanish settlement at Baracoa island was greeted with stiff resistant from the Taino community because of the feeling that they were being dispossessed their settlement land. There was a prolonged guerilla resistance from the Taino community that ultimately resulted in the capture and burning of chieftains (Staten 155).
The Spanish massacred populations brutally without considering the value of life. Bartolome de Las Casas who was a Clergyman observed the massacres and gave an account indicating the extent of brutality that was involved in the treatment of individuals. The brutal murders forced other indigenous communities to escape to mountainous areas in order to be safe. Ferdinand II of Aragon issued a decree in 1513 establishing encomienda land settlement scheme, which was to be incorporated in the larger Spanish Americas. This scheme was not successful because most Cuban died from diseases brought about by Spaniards. These diseases commonly included small pox and measles (Staten, 178). In fact, some Cuban populations preferred dying by slipping off the mountains in order to evade the heavy labor that was being imposed upon them by the Spanish colonial masters.
The Native Cubans were the largest collaborators in the schemes and taught the Cuban colonial masters on how tobacco is tended from the farms. As more farms were expanded into sugar plantations, the Spanish colonial masters decided to import African slaves who would provide labor in the farms. In the 19th century, Cuba became one of the largest producers of sugar in the world because of the labor provided by African slaves. This is because extensive land could be prepared and tilled by the strong African workers who had been forcibly brought to the schemes. Several developments such as the growth of the transport sector in Cuba were realized from the sugar business. Eventually, slave trade was abolished and the colonialists had to work without them (McAuslan and Norman, 177).
Between the 16th and the 18th Century, the colonial Cuba was exposed to several attacks from buccaneers, pirates, and French corsairs. All these individuals were targeting the riches acquired by Spain in the new world. They wanted a share of the benefits acquired Spain in the colony. Havana was a strategic point and was furnished with fortresses to counter invasions. Christopher Myngs captured and occupied Santiago de Cuba in 1662 during the attacks. In 1741, the English attacked the colony and took over the Guantanamo bay during the War of Jenkins’ Ear with Spain.
In the 19th century, several upheavals that took place in Cuba hence transforming its political shape. For instance, there was reformism, annexation, and abolitionism. In 1809 and 1810, there was the emergence of a separatist movement due to the Iberian Peninsula War and the subsequent removal of Ferdinand VII. The first armed struggle for independence took place in 1836 in Puerto Principe and Francisco de Aguero and Andreas Manuel Sanchez led them. The US president James Monroe addressed the Cuban issue and other British colonial countries in 1823 under the Monroe Doctrine.
Jose Marti moved to the US in 1881 after the second deportation. He went to mobilize the support of the Cuban exile community. There was continuous war in Cuba during this time until all the weapons were exhausted leading to guerilla warfare. This was the Cuban struggle for independence. The US noted all these problems and was determined to help Cuba address them. The destruction of Maine captured the American interest and it was focused on helping Cuba overcome the atrocities committed by the Spanish colonialists.
The US government also joined the Cuban territory hence changing the political landscape. It assisted in fighting the Spaniards and finally won the independence war for Cuba in 1902. Through this, Havana and Varadero became vital tourist attractions. Elections were held and President Tomas Estrada was elected in 1902 (Staten, 172). He served until 1909 when he resigned and the US Governor, Charles Magoon temporarily took over. Cuba continued on a peaceful footing with free and fair elections being held.
Eventually, there was a major revolution in 1959 and a young lawyer, Fidel Castro took over. He aimed at transforming the country into a better place. Fidel Castro led the country from 1959 and experienced many doubts from countries such as the US. He stepped down in 2006 and subsequently withdrew from public life due to illness.
Cuba has well developed communication systems that facilitate easier communication within the borders of the country and the outside world. The good communication systems are in place because of the committees relating to telecommunication technologies that are formed. In fact, Cuba has been in the process of developing its own minicomputers through the technology available. Engineers in various fields have been trained in all technological fields hence making it easier to utilize the above technology. The country is highly developed that it acquired the capacity to conduct cyber terrorism (Brenner, 145).
The medical technology in Cuba is highly developed and the island is regarded one of the best trainers of doctors around the globe. This is because of the sophisticated tools used in training the students hence ensuring that they are able to apply the learnt skills in the real life situation.
Industries in Cuba operate with the current levels of technology in order to compete with other excellent companies. This ensures that they stay at the same level of competitiveness with other companies. This is evident in the sugar industry (Brenner, 167). Technology adoption is quick in the country hence making it a key goal for the government in all sectors. Every government wants to see Cuba develop with the required level of technology.
Venezuela is also referred to as the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The country borders Guyana to the east, Colombia to the west, and Brazil to the north. Venezuela has a rich history that most historians would admire to pursue. An expedition by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast in 1499 and named the area Veneziola. The Spanish language that was later adopted by the citizens around that region then transformed the name into Venezuela. Several indigenous communities existed in the country at this time. These included, Auke, Caquetio, Mariche, and Timoto-cuicas (Denova and Frederick, 177). The number of these settlers was reduced through the conquest and diseases that followed the conquest of the region.
During the third voyage to the Americas in 1498, Christopher Columbus sailed near Orinoco Delta before landing in the Gulf of Paria. This visit was a set up for the real Spanish invasion of the country. The Spanish colonial masters moved into Venezuela in 1522 and established the first permanent settlement in Cumana. There was an attempt by the Germans to colonize Venezuela in the 16th century. The Spanish were strongly resisted by the native Venezuela leaders such as Tamanaco and Guaicaipuro. They failed in their resistance as the colonial forces overcame them. During the 16th century, the Spanish colonialists influenced most of the local communities such as the Mariche who converted into Catholicism.
There was a series of unsuccessful uprisings in Venezuela under the leader Francisco de Miranda. This was a marshal leader who had participated in both the American and French Revolutions. Eventually, the Venezuelan independence was almost declared in 1811 and a free state was to be acquired. A devastating earthquake in the Caracas brought down Venezuela in 18132 and a new republic had to be established as fast as possible.
It is asserted that sovereignty was only attained after Simon Bolivar and his assistants won the battle of Carabobo. This was won in June 1821. In addition, Rafael Urdaneta and Jose Prudencio Padilla won the Battle of Lake Maracaibo helping seal the Venezuelan independence in 1823.
Venezuela underwent dictatorial rule for most of the 19th century. The independence leader, Jose Antonio Paez captured the presidency thrice hence getting the opportunity to lead Venezuela between 1830 and 1863. There was a civil war between 1859 and 1863 leading to the loss of many lives in the country. In 1899, a revolutionary leader Cipriano Castro seized leadersip assisted by his brother Juan Vicente Gomez. He moved the army from his base in Tachira in order to occupy the office well.
The discovery of oil during World War 1 in Lake Maracaibo transformed the Venezuelan economy due to the benefits derived from the resource. Oil saw the Venezuelan economy grow to greater levels hence enabling the country to be among the world’s fastest growing economies. There was a coup de tat in 1945 that led to the overthrowing of the incumbent leader Medina Angarita. The coup welcomed a period of relaxation and democracy in the country giving space to a free and fair election in 1947 (Denova and Frederick,177). Romulo Gallegos was declared the president after a successful election that ushered in new leaders under a new regime. There democracy enjoyed was short lived by a military coup de tat in 1948 under the leadership of Perez Jimenez.
The Dictatorial regime was under pressure and Perez Jimenez was forced out of office in January 1958. There were major efforts to ensure that the young democracy was developed in the country. Venezuela has been growing as a democratic country that allows free expression among individuals and other entities. The current president for Venezuela is Hugo Chavez who has always been supported by the majority vote. The adoption of the Venezuelan democracy has brought about change enabling the creation of a state where individuals are able to articulate their ideas.
Technologically, Venezuela is picking up at a faster rate. This is with the aim of keeping pace with faster growing economies around the world. The government is adopting technology in every sphere of operations. It has is embracing technology in the media in order to ensure that democracy is achieved. This is also a simpler way of reaching poor individuals within the society.
The level of technology is on the rise in most sectors such as the education sector in order to ensure that students understand all the subject areas that are taught by their teachers. For instance, there was the launch of satellites that are vital in ensuring that even poor students access the basic education offered in the country. Education is an essential tool of development in any country willing to prosper. Thus, Venezuela is among the countries wishing to do away with poverty and ensure that the living standards of individuals are at the required levels (Conference and Khosrowpour, 200).
In the medical sector, technology has been adopted as sophisticated equipment is used in the diagnosis of several diseases. The rural population is also being addresses medically through the provision of affordable medical services using cheaper technology.
The country is quickly embracing the use of computers and other technologically improved devices in various activities. Computers are build in popular centers referred to as infocentres. This are centers where individuals would access the internet and freely chat with others in interactive sites on various media. Computer usage is applied in all sectors of the economy with the aim of revolutionizing the economy to ensure that all processes and activities are performed faster as required.
Technology in Venezuela is mainly used to narrow the gap between the rich and the poor. The only way to empower the poor is using technology that is required at various levels. Thus, the info centers are mainly constructed with the aim of passing knowledge to the majority poor individuals in the society (Conference and Khosrowpour, 255).
Remarkable levels of technology have been witnessed in the oil industry. The methods used in prospecting and utilization of oil are current hence making it easier to minimize the costs. Venezuela has adopted the highest level of technology in the oil industry in order to ensure that higher returns are received.