The industrial revolution started in England because of a number of factors. Firstly, England had firm traditional agrarian structures that enhanced farming. This led to improved harvest that provided raw materials for industries. The second factor was that British people had a different personality compared to other Europeans. They were exploitative in nature and willing to take on new ideas. The third factor was the existence of pre-existing factors like technology, social and cultural advantages.
The new men in the industrial revolution were the dominant industrialists who invested heavily in manufacturing and other profitable ventures like mining. New men brought renewed energy into the industrial revolution. They invented many things that were essential for the economic transformation of the world. This included vehicles, firm machinery, and iron smelting technology among other things.
Heilbroner, regards the emergence of the industrial revolution, and capitalism as a threat to social justice in the society. He gives an in-depth view of how previous economic trends have contributed in creating current social challenges. He blames industrial revolution forces and capitalism for existing social injustices in the world.
The new and uncongenial social habitat that came with the industrial revolution was the emergence of cities and urban centers. People abandoned their farm lifestyles preferring to stay in cities. People were forced to adapt and started working on machine rates. The author used the term, uncongenial, because he wanted to indicate how people felt when switching from the comfort of their rural homes to towns where everything was fast paced.
The conditions of labor during the industrial revolution were deplorable. People were forced to work for longer hours at low wages. There was no insurance; people were exposed to danger in factories. There were no welfare organizations to protect the interest of workers. The reform movement coincided with capitalism from the beginning because it was during this period that the ownership rights shifted from communal to individual.