Discussion 1

The Atlantic slave trade took place from 1500 to 1800. It is during this period, the first production of sugar took place in the West Indies. The Spanish introduced the sugar cultivation in the Caribbean. At the same time there was also tobacco production. This was after the Europeans became interested in its production, also the French developed colonial base on tobacco cultivation. Most of the companies which dealt in tobacco cultivation were given monopoly powers. There was also cheap labour to work in the sugarcane farms and industries.

Spanish had started sugar production but did not sustain the large population. Later in 1550s; the Portuguese introduced sugarcane production in Brazil and took a big portion of the Brazil coast in its production. They then introduced slave trade; they took slaves from alumina and Luanda to Brazil and West Indies. In 1600 companies teamed up and shifted from tobacco production to sugarcane production. Due to this the French and English colonies a made a transition from tobacco to sugar production economy. As a result of this; demand for labour in the sugar production economy increased. This led to a significant increase in the number of slaves and increasing the volume of Atlantic slave trade. For example, in 1700 there were three times more Europeans than there used to be in West Indies. Thereafter, 20 thousand slaves a year were brought to the sugar production. The high profits made by sugar planters made them to invest more in slavery. That is, they had enough money to buy slaves for cheap labour. Therefore, Sugar cultivation contributed most to the Atlantic slave trade.

Discussion 2

Descartes was a philosopher, and had done a publication around 1637. In his publication he was responding to some clarity he had seen in the art of science. And to achieve that scientific clarity; science should be prosecuted by use of some hypothesis to test reasoning. This philosopher also believed that, alleged truth test could have been done for clarity so as to prove it. An example of a quote “I think, Therefore, I am (cogito ergo sum). The hypothesis of existence is clearly proven by this quote.

Descartes cosmology study and matter personality develops theories of heavenly bodies’ formulation. The theory he developed propelled into passion by most educated elites by then and even today. Descartes also wanted to focus more on human anatomy. He also drew some theory on the existence of the soul. Descartes also had key strategy was to false believes into beliefs that befalls prey even over the slightest doubt.

Discussion 3

Nationality is defined to as; that since of indentifying with a country or nation. The French revolution was a liberal movement which was violent on the French monarchy. Despite the fact that France was divided into different religions and regions, people are also linked together by the fact that they were supposed to serve the only king. Towards the end of the 18th century people build a sense of membership. They could by then perceive themselves as citizens. Their services were dedicated to the development of the country economy. This sense can be seen as an instigated nationalism among these French people. A good example of this is when the Frenchmen went out into war with the Europeans countries; the soldiers were composed together with a sense of that they were citizens fighting a combat of their own.

The rise of antilogism came over when the French revolutions said no to more imperialism. This led to a sprung up of true nationalism. This happened around 1848. This was clearly shown when the French army went out in war in defence of their country. It was an army comprising of soldiers who were fighting hard for their own course.

Discussion 4

There were a number of inventions in Europe which took place and had significant change in the industrial revolution. The most significant of all was the invention of spinning machines in the textile industry. After creation of large textile factories, there was need for an efficient method to manufacture textile materials. This was steered by the booming demand of these commodities in the West Indies and America. Therefore, there was need for a machine that was efficient and effective enough to meet production of enough products that could satisfy the growing large population. This led to the invention of spinning jenny, and the water powered loom around 1765 by James Hargreaves and Edmund Cartwright.

After invention; there was need for energy to power this engine to make them even more efficient. This led to the invention of the steam engines to replace the water power sinning meals in the manufacturing factories.Thse forms of invention contributed to the population growth in Europe and as result, it contributed to industrial expansion. The large population was to provide more labour force in these factories.

Discussion 5

Nationalism is the nation state which is seen as an important force which leads to realization of cultural aspirations, economic and social aspects among people. French was the most affected by nationalism. This happened during the French revolution back in 11789-1799.This a point where loyalty to the king was overtaken by loyalty to the father land. After the revolution the French people consciousness was awaken. The revolution was triggered by the monarchical form of governments .This led to the doing away with the empires which were multinational. Traditional territories and structures of power were conqured.As a result Europe became a uniform united nation comprising of national territories under common institutions and laws. After France nationalism it spread to other nations in Europe. Italians and Germans after the French nationalism they also started moments in the aim of creating nations. The world war fastened the penetration of nationalism even into the colonies.

Discussion 6

Imperialism was caused by a number of factors. The most significant of all was the fact that these European powers had great urge for prestige and a high level of wanting. This was mainly based on balancing their power. Through maintaining this power so as to acquire hence they were able to colonize giving them access to cheap labour as well as markets which enlarged as a result boosted their economy.

These colonies could supply raw materials to support growth and expansion of industries in European cities. The more colonies it had symbolised some sense of strength and power. This also enlarged and expanded markets for these European countries. These countries also targeted to spread regions’ messages to their colonies. Also ideologies contributed their aim was to civilize others as well as exploration of land in other parts of the world. This was mainly contributed to by the aim of mapping these areas.

Discussion 7

New imperialism is the colonial development practiced by the European powers and later adopted by United States and Japan in the 19th century and early 20th century. In my own opinion India was the most affected by the European imperialism. There were both negative and positive impacts of imperialism in India. Most Indians were discriminated and lived in poverty. Some classes of people were given priorities over the others by the British policies. This was evident over the fact that new middle class move on and hold elevated positions in the government.       

There was also banning of the Indian traditional practices like sati promoting of widow remarriage and prohibition of child marriage. British imperialist also led to the collapse of the Indians traditional industries. When the British took over the government India a rebellion arose in 1857 as a mutiny of sepoys of the British East India Company's army. Consequently, it led to disbanding East India Company in 1858, and forced the British to restructure the army, the administration and financial system in India. India was later on directly governed by the Crown in the new British Raj. The advantage is that most Indians were given same treatment equal to those of colonists. The Indians who were educated were given a chance to run the government of India.

Discussion 8

Haiti revolution was generally a fundamental of imbalances in the society of Haiti. Most of the population of Haiti comprised of a vast majority slaves. These slaves were oppressed on a daily basis naked ways; they were also economically deprived in such a wealthy system. The most pressing issue was a   call in termination of the slavery. 90 % population of these colonies was made of slaves. This was the main cause and aim of the revolution.

The revolution was also caused by a call for political equality. This was between the people and the Frenchmen but the white who owned a large number of slaves opposed the recommendations. This left the conflicting groups as well as the slave out of the ring. The revolts were led by Vincent Oge. What resulted was a start of racial discrimination and oppression then later; the slaves went out in a rebellion in 1791up to 1794.

American played a role in the Haiti revolution; they feared that the rebellions by the slaves in Haiti could have triggered the slaves in the USA plantations to start their own rebellion. In respect to preserve the economy as well as reduce the fear of the white people in the south, the America agreed to the terms of embargo and john Adams claims.

L'Ouverture and the revolution stand out in the worlds history is because this man was the one who led the Haiti revolution. This man’s army and his political stand led to the formation of the blacks Haiti state. His revolution he led shook and affected the slavery institution throughout the world.

Discussion 9

The reds worn the war against Russians over a number of factors; this was a civil war took place for at least three years and it happened between 1819 -1821. There were a number of reasons which contributed to its eruption like the use of negative motivation to the soldiers. This happened when a soldier disappeared or survived and was made to pay a price; this made the soldiers to be aggressive and loyal to their leader.

They made sure that there were enough soldiers to fight. This was enhanced through the food which was given to the soldiers. So, many people flocked into the army which made it to be large and strong. Over its formation; the secret police made it sure that there were no people who opposed the rule of Lenin.

There was an enhanced cohesiveness between the reds soldiers. Unlike their enemies the whites formed an army comprising of many people and they did not hate each other. They were a whole group of people who were hopeless and they used to fall for each other which definitely weakened them leading to their defeat. The whites also lost the support they were getting from their allies. Another factor that led them to their defeat is that they were not unified.

Discussion 10

The inter war is time after the war took place. One of the literature giants drew the attention on the fact that crises had overtaken most of the European mind and this took place by 20th century as argued by Paul Valery. In his art work of poetry he relates all economic and political disabilities to the war which had just ceased.. He tries to show the greatness and the fall of Europe. The Great War had drove Valarie in pondering the Europe civilization. By 1914 Europe had reached the modest limits and is evident by the mind according to Valery. The European men succumbed into anxiety as well as anguish. The crisis from the military during the world war was over but economic crisis persisted, as the mind crisis. He tries to show that despite the end war the impacts were being felt by many people especially economically. This caused subtle causes of the philosophy and art.

Discussion 11

Mustafa Kemal I believe was a nationalist; was devoted to the interests of his country and the promotion of the culture of Turkey which was his country. His devotion was to make the interest Turkey stand out of those of other countries. He did this in a number of ways. He remained in the Turkish military and did not quit even when the European war broke in 1914 august and he was given a command. Other than these, he was also fully devoted to the in throwing back the allied invasion and conducted repeated attacks making him very popular in his country.

When the Turk administration collapsed Kemal did not quit or flee as most leadership were doing in Germany, but Kemal organised and united nationalist forces against the allied Turkey division and established provisional government. He also led a guellila campaign which was against Greeks interest. Kemal then became the first president of Turkey and worked hard in transforming the Turkish society law and politics where the citizens adopted westernized lifestyle. For his great work as a nationalist, he was awarded to honour his accredited efforts of liberating Turkey.

Discussion 12

The bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima had great impact and it killed so many innocent civilians .The rationale of these bombing was to try and stop the planned attack on the USA, referred to as the downfall plan on USA. Another thing was also to prevent causalities which would have arisen from Japanese mainland. The bombing that contributed to the end of the war led to killing of innocent civilians. Use of bombs could not have served the intended intention even after bombing the place japans would have refused to surrender and call upon allies for revenge. This would have accelerated the war making it even worse. This would have not brought the war to an end. Another thing is that bombing of civilians would be taken as a crime and unethical. In real sense this bombing was cursed by many people, so doing it would have resulted a non reformer and would never live in conscience (DeFronzo).

Discussion 13

There was competition over ideologies over other countries. This was between the United States and the Soviet Union. This was only some kind of natural consequences which arose from Russian revolution of world war II.There was difference between support of capitalism and communist. The united state was for capitalism and the soviet were for communist. After the end of the World War II these two countries become the strongest powers. Soviet become so worried from being attacked from west and yet wanted to dominate the Eastern Europe. Through this indication; the US came into their senses of soviet interest which was to dominate Europe and the world and with the opposition from the US the soviet thought that this was a plot by the US to destroy them. This was what gave room for cold war.

Cold war began at the time of iron curtain traced back in May 1946; a period marked by military and political tension /rivalry. This war is believed to having started in after the end of the World War II with the refusal of Josef Stalin ban of European nations from east to go after the war. This led to demands from France, US and Britain nations to be given chance to choose the type of governments they want.

Discussion 14

The soviet collapsed over a number of reasons. They spent a lot of money in maintaining their military personnel compared to the USA. The soviet was using 17 % more of the GDP only on the military. The soviet economy by then was stagnant. There were opened opinions on how to improve the communist system, but it was highly criticized and there was a call to replace it, their wages was stagnant while the lifestyle of people in the west was very good.

The youth were against this system because everything was controlled. Like they could not wear what they wanted or listen to the music of their choice. People were tired of being told what to do. This however made them to protest to be given self governance. This give raise to protests like from the Baltic republic in demand of freedom. The fall of the soviet was steered by the 1991 coup.

Discussion 15

In china the communist were able to win because: they had organised plans and their main aim was to gain, draw and win peoples support. The communist were able to make use of most of the position they had by the end of World War II. The communist got military aid from the Soviet Union and were able to effectively and realistically use this support. The nationalists received funds from America but did not utilize this opportunity effectively. Finally, people who supported communist got a lot of support from the local population as they advanced to other territory had a massive advantage.

The most tactics the communist used that I find very relevant is the way they took advantage of every single support they received especially the military support from the soviet. This shows how effective and organised they were. It also shows they had that urge of winning the battle.

Discussion 16

This regime was under the regime of president Allende elected in 1970. Allende had so many promises to the people of Chile. His first step towards reforming Chile was to transform it into socialism. He also introduced price controls, raised wages and income redistribution.

Conflicts started in 1972 when the economy of the country erupted. There were prices sky rocketing strikes, food shortages as a result of reduced foreign credits, and increased political violence. The climax of all these conflicts reached when the military forces seized power in a coup forcing the president to commit suicide which was as a result of lose of power..

The United State role in these conflicts was aggravating behind this crisis with the aim to undermine the regime of Allende. America intervention was for the good of the Chile therefore, I justify its intervention now that Chile economy could have remained in question under the Allende’s era.

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