Crime, Punishment, and Myopia is a criminal justice article that seeks to establish measures that can be taken to ensure a reduction in the rate of committing a crime. The article observes various methods that can be inculcated to ensure that committing crime appears expensive to the perpetrators. Thus, the article views that escalating the severity of punishments has a positive effect as it ensures the commission of crime reduces immensely. According to Lee and McCrary (2005), the problem in the article is that the costs of controlling crime have significantly increased. This resulted because of the intermittent rise in the number of people committing a crime, which necessitated the increase in expenditures and the number of criminal justice employees.  Lee & McCrary (2005) note that there was a 170 percent increase in the expenditures of criminal justice system. In addition, there was a 115 percent population increase in the ratio of criminal justice employees in comparison to the country’s population. Thus, basing on the above purpose of the research and problem statement, the questions asked include: What are the main motivations of criminal behavior? What is the cost-benefit of criminal behavior? What are the deterrence effect of incarceration length on criminal behavior?

Research design is employed to turn a research question into a testing project. Thus, the article has employed a quasi-experiment design in tackling the research question. The article has employed a large, personal level, longitudinal data set that comprises information on arrests with regard to birth and the date of arrest. An operational definition identifies an object, term or variable in relation to validation tests that are employed to determine its quantity and presence. Thus, an example of operational definition from the article concerns the age of person in relation to the court that passes judgement. Thus, to paraphrase Lee & McCrary (2005) operational definition, a person who is under 18 years is charged by a juvenile court, while those above 18 years are charged in adult criminal courts. Inductive logic entails a system of support that is based on evidence. In the article, inductive logic denotes from the first paragraph where the authors refer to figure IV and figure I that have open circles, which denote the number of people arrested on a weekly basis prior to their 17th birthday. Thus, the results deducted from the figures showed decrease in the number of arrests when teenagers turn 18 years old. This drop is particularly low in the week prior to and after the teens turn 18 years. On the other hand, deductive logic applies crucial premise in exact situations. Thus, from the article’s results, an example of deductive logic is that all offenders both young and adults face the same type of punishment. Another example of deductive logic derived from the article is that there is an immediate increase the price of crime when an individual turns 18.

The research study employed is quantitative. There are myriad factors that substantiate the quantitative research study. Firstly, it should be noted that quantitative research method employs mathematical models, which are present in the research article. The article has employed the Economic Model of Criminal Behavior. In addition, the article utilizes the Standard Economic Model of Crime as it facilitates clarification of the assumptions in the empirical strategy. It should also be noted that quantitative method aids in coming up with predictions. For instance, from the article, the use of the standard model has facilitated coming up with predictions regarding offenders such as rational, they denote a decrease in offenses after turning 18 years, and are favored with discount factors estimated at 0.95. The purpose of quantitative research in employing numbers is the assumption that it will aid in yielding unbiased results. These unbiased results are intended for generalization on a larger population.

The methodology utilized in this research is the grounded theory approach that enables the researcher to identify, examine, and analyze reasonable factors that would  help in the understanding of crimes and criminal offenders. The research methodology has been chosen because it makes it easier to interpret the research question from both the objective and subjective view hence giving a wider scope of ideas to be collected during the research. With this methodology, a thorough investigation would be conducted in order to evaluate criminology and other factors relating to criminal offenders. Thus, this research methodology is more efficient because it gives a deeper understanding of the topic and helps researchers collect sufficient information that would be used in the enhancement of research. Basing on the research methodology simpler ways of collecting information would be employed hence making the entire research cheaper.

A population of 5000 individuals was involved in the research. This population involved gender and age balance in order to ensure that responses from all the various populations were taken into consideration. A large number of individuals would make it easier for researchers to collect the vital information required. There would be maximum reliability on the information collected from the field because of the large group of individuals under study. The research considered large populations easier to study because of the various characteristics that exist. These characteristics would make it easier for the research team to achieve the required results making it easier to conduct in depth researches. The population was selected based on random sampling. Random sampling was considered more favorable because it enables research groups get the required populations. Through random sampling, a wide variety of individuals would be selected without bias hence making it easier  and more efficient for the research team. Vital information that is free of bias would be selected making the research process successful and effective. The return rate of the responses was favorable as most of the participants were able to give feedback. Out of the 5000 respondents, the research managed to get responses from 4500 individuals. This was a positive step in this research because it ensured that a wide variety of views relating to various individuals are known.

The research found out that the increasing severe punishment helps reduce criminal cases. There are several ways of dealing with criminal offenders. Individuals would be put under suffering by the punishment mechanisms put in place in various correctional institutions. They would have to be bound by the law that puts into place such severe punishment. Research asserts that the punishments that are criminal would likely face threats and discourage more people from participating in crimes. This leads to a significant reduction in the number of criminal cases.

It was found out that the costs related to crime prevention have been on the increase over the years. Institutions that are concerned with the maintenance of law and order in the society would always have to set up corrective facilities that would help in the accomodation of criminals as they face their different sentences. Thus, the costs of maintaining nation security institutions keep on increasing as newer forms of crimes are committed daily. The government should ensure that such institutions are properly maintained hence making it easier for the concerned security personnel to work with confidence and love for their jobs.

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