Evaluating Sources (References) for Criminal Justice/Security Management Research


Criminal justice refers to the system of institutions and practices that governments direct towards maintaining and supporting a collective social control, mitigating and deterring crime, or imposing stiffer penalties on those who break the laws with imposition of penalties and efforts to rehabilitate. This paper seeks to evaluate various sources of information (references) that can provide a framework from which we can formulate and understand better criminal justice. The evaluated references will serve to unveil to the reader the most reliable source which the reader can refer to for further research on this issue.


Samuel, W. (1992). "Origins of Contemporary Criminal Justice and security management

measures: New York: Enslow Publishers, Inc, 2004.

This is a book that discusses the evolution of the criminal justice system. It also discusses the course of crime in the US alongside other counties. It has also endeavored to explore policing and the courts. The book reviews the criminal justice systems and also offers various explanations as to why it took a comparatively longer time to end. The book contains and has also explored in detail various anecdotes that further give a better explanation on the ordeal of crime. The book also dispels untrue myths about certain crimes that have been in existence in the United States since time immemorial. It also has explored in detail the recommended criminal procedures that one should take, various bodies of law that regulate and those which should regulate inquiries into whether or not a given person has obeyed or violated criminal law. How various criminal procedures can govern the execution of official criminal enquiries, arrests, charging, and trial of those that have been found to be guilty and how those who are found to be guilty should be sentenced. It also gives some insight on how a convicted person can appeal for a review of decisions of the trial court.

William, W. (1994). The Reintegration of Criminal Justice into mainstream systems. Oxford:

Oxford University.

In this book, the author has given an in-depth discussion on how various governments have been integrating certain legal instruments into their statute books.  The author refers to this as Reintegration of Criminal Justice systems into mainstream systems. The book has also illustrated various geographical splits and how they have led to a conflict of ideologies when instituting and integrating criminal justice systems into existing laws. The author is one of the famous scholars and pioneers in the field of criminal justice. He discusses the contribution of criminal justice institutions on the existing justice systems. He discusses paternalism, which harmonized slaveholders. The book also discusses the origin crime and thereafter the coming up of various criminal institutions to reduce the rates of crime.

Walker, Samuel (1977). A Critical History of Reforms in the criminal justice. The Emergence of

Professionalism. Lexington, MT: Lexington Books

This book has discussed criminal justice in relation to the crimes. It has immensely discussed the various traditional meanings that have been ascribed to crime and criminal justice, how members of different societies view it and the widely held belief that engagement in crime is in itself a civilizing act. It describes how and why crime has been used for social, political, economic and cultural reasons and the motivations behind such.

The book also discusses the demonstrations, emergence and the roles that have been played by various civil rights movements in the fight against rampant crime and the lack of justice and fairness in the criminal justice system. It has discussed the role of civil society activists in convincing people that certain crimes do not warrant death penalties and that criminals are also human beings. The book has also shown various roles that have been played by various churches towards instituting crime institutions and in fight against crime.

Mark N. (2011). Organized Crime: Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi.

The book discusses crime within the context of modernity and post-modernity. It has brought to light the emergence and development of new forms of crime that have now emerged and come into existence and is within us in the present era of modernity. It has also reflected on certain issues and a variety of factors that have contributed to the sophistication in crime and the mutation of modern-day criminals into villains. The book has illustrated various difficulties that are faced by the present law enforcing authorities in trying to clamp down on the perpetrators. It has also discussed how crime has been evolving to its present forms in the modern world.

A range of issues from advancements in technology, the role of the social media, concealment of identities to commit crime among others have been discussed. The author has also discussed abatement measures being undertaken for crimes like cyber crimes, among other technologically instigated crimes.

Fuller J.  (2005). Criminal Justice: Mainstream and Crosscurrents. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle

River, NJ.

This is an essay written by the aforementioned author. At the end of this essay are commentaries regarding the work. The essay has discussed how crime became a common activity in American ghettos from around the year 1900. The article has also covered the gains that have been in the war against ghetto crime. It discusses the lives of those who lived in ghettos, the high dependency on drug use hence an all time high propensity of the people to commit crimes. It also describes various jobs which were done by the ghetto dwellers. It has delved upon certain realities that surrounded high crime rates in American boroughs several years ago and the reasons for such.


Based on the above bibliographic annotations, the reader can therefore easily choose the book that forms the most valuable reference point for more information on crime and criminal justice.

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