1. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an agency that protects consumers from anti competitive business practices. It is empowered to contend for workers safety than. The Federal Trade Commission is the least effective, because there are few corporations that merge with other ones and still operate as individual corporations but are just one.
Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for developing and enforcing environmental regulations like clean air and environment. It prosecutes firms that do not follow the regulations, and closure of such firms is done. This agency has been one of the most controversial agencies.EPA has become counterproductive by using dangerous chemical to overcome infestations for example infestation of gnats. Most of the regulations put in place by EPA lead to increase in prices of food, clothes and other consumer products ( Friedrichs 2009).
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) issues workplace health and safety regulations. These regulations include limits on chemical exposure, employee’s access to information, requirements for the use of personal protective equipment, and requirements for safety procedures. Different studies have established OSHA inspections impact measurably on reducing workers’ injuries and increasing workplace safety. Hence, it is the most effective agency as compared to others.
Factors that specifically influence how agencies operate include:
Political factor greatly affects how agencies operate. Over the years politicians have greatly interfered with federal regulatory agencies, for example, during Reagan and Bush’s reign their governments had influence on the Environmental Protection Agency.
Authority, the extent to which these agencies have authority is immense. Many federal agencies have limited authority, for example, the Food and Drug Administration can not directly tests products.
Economic factors. Most federal agencies are supported financially by the government and due to political interference the government may limit the funds they give out to these agencies to regulate their activities (Friedrichs 2009).
2. Examples of white collar crime include tax fraud, identity theft, embezzlement, environmental crimes among others. Strategies that might elevate consciousness about white collar crime include the following:
Termination of employees and prosecution where need arises. This should always be the last resort that the corporation undertakes.
Inclusions of article about white collar crime in company letters to enable the workers know the stand of their corporation on white collar crime.
Background check up of all employees to enable the employer to have a clear knowledge of whether the employee has previously been engaged in illegal activities.
Creation of policies that employees should follow to act as guidelines and enable them to avoid what the corporation considers as white collar crime.
Creating fraud awareness programs for all employees to educate the workers about white collar crimes, the consequences of engaging in such activities among others.
Some of the major policy options for responding to white collar crime include:
Occupation disqualification, where the employee who has committed the crime is stripped of his or her certificate of work, and the person is not able to work in that profession.
Organizational reforms and corporate dissolution. This is to curb the ongoing white collar crime within the organization.
Civil suits and penalties to those found engaging in white collar crime.
Termination of employment in cases that are severe and especially where the committed crime has had great negative impact on the public and the corporation.
Community service, where the person who has committed the crime agrees to do community service. This is common where the cooperation approach is being used.
Prosecution and prison sentences to employees who break the laws.
Restitution: corporations are well positioned to make restitution to victims and to pay victims compensation for the loses they have caused.
The overall strategy that is likely to succeed is occupational disqualification, since it incapacitates offenders by depriving them of opportunities for committing their occupationally related crimes ( Friedrichs 2009)
3. Formal laws compel corporations to correct at least some hazards involving the work place or product.
Formal laws enable people, to who injustices have been committed, to get justice and compensation for the loses they have experienced.
Most people are aware of the formal laws that have been put in place and in case they break any of these laws and are charged, they will not feel like they are being accused wrongly.
Formal laws should not be relied on greatly because it is difficult to demonstrate criminal intent, especially when it comes to white collar crimes.
Corporations have found it less costly to contend lawsuits that limit profits by complying with laws making formal law unreliable. Therefore, they would rather commit crime and pay fines, because it is cheaper than to abide by the laws put in place and make little or no profit.
Ordinary juries in the cases are incompetent as they engage in bribery and corruption and are not determined to bring the criminals to justice but would rather suppress cases.
Cooperative approach is where rehabilitation of the offenders is carried out in order to encourage change in the person who committed white collar crimes. Cooperative approach is always cheap as lawsuits are avoided, since the person who commits the crime remains cooperative. This approach is looked as the best white collar crime as most judges give short jail terms to offenders of white collar crime, because they do not see these crimes as grievous.
Punitive approach is where the criminal justice system punishes rather than rehabilitates or changes the person. This approach is costly and risky and supports punishment of the offender. The criminal is penalized for all the wrong doing and can also be imprisoned.
4. Professions have attempted to regulate themselves through formulation of codes of conduct, where each corporation or professions formulate their own codes of conducts that will guide them.
Formation of committees or boards to evaluate allegations of professional misconduct, which are empowered to revoke licenses and the right to practice.
Formulation of policies that act as guidelines to the professions and they are to be followed by the professional.
Setting of rules and regulations that are supposed to be observed by the profession in their various work areas.
The efforts have not been very successful; profession associations have been much more concerned with promoting the economy and other interests of profession rather than ensuring that misconduct of professionals is dealt with. Boards like physicians rarely report disciplinary actions to state boards (Coleman 14).
5. Complex organizations are organizations that have many people, rules, strategies among others. These organizations encourage their members to engage in illegal acts in various ways, which may be compulsive, or through coercing of the employees which may include the following:
A salary raise, where the employee or employees are promised a raise in their salary, if they engage in illegal activities that will benefit the corporation.
Promotion at work is also a way of encouraging members to engage in illegal activities. The employer promises his employee that if he takes part in an illegal activity on behalf of the organization, he will get promoted in return.
Through threatening of employees that if they do not do what they have been told then they will lose their jobs.
Actual sacking of employees who do not allow going ahead and engaging in the illegal activities carried out by the organization.
Making employees sign binding contracts that will make them go at a loss in case they choose to leave the organization before the time stated in the contract (Coleman 14).