Cancer Research and Biostatistics
In

Biostatistics is the application of cutting-edge and sophisticated statistics in the study of a wide range of biological topics. Biostatistics entails the designs of biological experimentations mainly in the fields of medicine, pharmacy, fishery, and agriculture. It also involves collecting, summarizing, and analyzing the data obtained from the experiments and inference tactics from the obtained results. Biostatistics uses mathematical knowledge and statistics formulas to come up with the conclusions about a disease. Cancer has proven to be a menace in the 21st century with its adverse effects being felt in all the parts of the world and the survivors of the monstrous disease left in terrible conditions. It is estimated that more than half a million Americans die yearly; more than 10,000 cancer cases are identified every year. The predictions from the National Cancer Institute indicate that despite the strict screening measures that have been put in place, the rising levels of cancer need to be combated with all possible means. The increasing interest in cancer has prompted the biostatistics research centers to come up with solutions and strategies that may assist in combatting the disease. The study aims to prove that biostatistics can help in the reduction of cancer-related cases as well as provide a possible way of prevention and cure to the affected victims. The paper gives an overview of how biostatistics can be used to find a long-lasting solution in the diagnosis and prevention of cancer. The study analyzes trends in cancer over the years to come up with a credible analysis of the probable causes and easy detection of the disease

## Biostatistics Terminology

Below are some of the business terminologies that are related both to public health and medical research fields.

Absolute risk reduction is the lessening of risk with a new treatment as associated with the risk without the prescribed treatment. Absolute risk reduction is calculated by obtaining the differences between the absolute value of the event rate of the control and the event rate of the experiment. The alpha value is known to be the measure of the value of alpha in a test carried out to measure the hypothesis. An alternative hypothesis is regarded as the correct theory in the case of rejection of the null hypothesis.

Binary observation is a technique that describes the successful trials observed in a test and the independent trials, with each of the given tests having the same probability of occurrence. Biometrics is studying measurement and statistical analysis for the use in the fields of medicine and biology. A blind study is a study frequently an experimentation procedure that the involved subjects do not have the knowhow of the treatment they are receiving.

A case control is based on observation, where the outcomes are identified by carrying out a study of people suffering from a particular disease and a group of healthy subjects known as the control. The method tries to determine the probable risk factors for a particular illness.

### Biological Statistical Procedures

The statistical procedure in biology assists in the formation of a simpler way of evaluating results without a solid mathematical background consideration. In the cancer research, such procedures as biological and statistical were used.

The standard error bars allow the comparison of the means of different populations. In this measurement, independent variable is always taken to be qualitative, whereas dependent variable in the comparison is known to be quantitative. A comparison of the positive and the standard negative error results in an irregular t-test result. An advantage of the error bars is that it provides rookies in statistics with a more visual way to test differences, data variability. The standard bars can also be used to measure more than two means in different tests. However, standard error bars pose a risk of obtaining false results. A conclusion about the variations of cancer occurrences can be cited as different, while in the real world, there are no major differences.

The Chi-square is a biology statistical procedure that was used in the cases where both dependent and independent variables were quantitative. The data utilized by the Chi-square is the number of individuals in the category.

The correlation method for cancer biostatistics is any class of statistical relationships that is broad in nature and that involves dependence. The method was used to show two variables that had the linear relationship with each other when evaluated.

### Biostatistics Computation

The study computation involved the measurement of variability and the correlation in the population sample under the test of cancer. Variability is known to be the deviation of values away from the standard. The technique was used to identify the relationships between the different types of cancers and their total occurrence with specified regions that had been marked for the research. The results were used to calculate the data.

Correlation involves the measurement of data associations that can be solved by a correlation coefficient. Correlation was used when the data computation was the study to identify if the number of cancer cases had tallied with the increased rapid changes in eating behaviors. However, most regions were found to have a linear relationship as the changes in the lifestyle and eating habits of cancer patients were the primary causative agents of various types of cancer.

### Data Collection and Viability

Data concerning the number of people who had reported cancer cases in the district hospitals was collected and tallied. The data was accurate as the patients who needed access to drugs and medical assistance had to register with the hospitals first before they were given access to the cancer facilities such as the chemotherapy and radiotherapy sections. The fact that the data was obtained from recognized hospitals and was based on real data collected first hand from patients themselves makes this data reliable for use.

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### Proposed Solutions

The epidemiology research involves the cancer screening and cancer prevention strategy. Thus, cancer screening would assist in the early detection and cure of the people diagnosed with cancer and at the same time, give hope to those who have been discharged from hospitals as the result of a successful treatment.

The Tobacco Research and Cancer Control Center had also been involved in the identification of whether there was a correlation between the chances of individuals who smoked and their risk of having cancer and a non-of tobacco took the same experiment. The results of the research should be presented for publishing, as they would save more than a generation if the recommendations given by the research firms were to be followed. The Cancer Research Center has provided a medicinal type of cigarette that is not as addictive as nicotine and that one requires to smoke about once during a day. Although not many people have tuned to the mentality of medicinal cigarettes, coming to think of it is a great idea that will save a generation from themselves.

A point estimate parameter is a solitary significance of a statistic, while the standard error is used to measure the statistical precision of an appraised value. The confidence level is the probability chance that the results of a said parameter would fall within a given set value or range of fixed values. The margin of error is the allowed range for miscalculation or a significant change in the calculations.

The standard error tries to quantify the different variations among the sample statistics and attempts to explain their precision, while at the same time, the margin of mistakes calculates only the margin allowed for the miscalculation for any set of given data.

### Conclusion

Biostatistics is a fundamental element in biological studies that holds the answers to many problems that people face on a day-to-day basis. The cancer research statistics are meant to reduce the deadly killing rates of the disease while at the same time, assist in the early detection of the diseases to provide the room for treatment. The biostatistics breakthrough is the next analytical based solution for evaluating and giving credible solutions to diseases. Through use of statistics, the evidence-based approach assists in the solutions based on facts and not assumptions. However, biostatistics should be adopted in all areas of medical research to ensure that medical research is well informed and appropriately calculated to establish the causes, the basis, and the recommendations of the given study.