Introduction

A crisis is an emotional, physical or mental discomfort that a person experiences in a different period of time. The crisis can be caused by illness, financial instability, divorce, someone’s death or even a natural calamity. Any event that could lead to someone’s upheaval is called a crisis. In the event of a crisis, measures to deal with the disaster are put in place using professional method known as crisis assessment; thus with this process the whole crisis is looked to help the victim heal from the unstable state.

Crisis assessment involves a number of procedures until the victim is rescued from the circumstances and its effects. The main scheme is always to deal with the problem by intervening so as to dig deep to the causes of the crisis and hence come up with a way how to cure the victims. Several methods are employed during a crisis intervention including counseling sessions with the victim in order to help the person deal and manage its effects. Therefore, the effects can be physical, emotional or mental as was stated earlier and can cause different traumas.

Question 1

The effects of a crisis are assessed using the victims’ help whereby they are engaged, and the problem is identified. According to Richard James, several models are put in place to help in assessing a crisis and helping the victim deal with it. These models include the contextual ecological, the equilibrium, cognitive, the psychosocial transition and the development ecological model. All these models have measures to use while intervening into a crisis used mostly by the professional counselors.

The contextual ecological model is used for one main reason, and that is to assess the impact of the crisis on the victim and the physical environment or interactions which is around him. This model is used because the procedure of assessing a crisis requires one to put together all the necessary tools and measure surrounding of the victim before, during and after the crisis. An analysis of factors that contributed to the crime, for example how to manage the crisis and the effects of the crisis are to be measured via the correct procedures. The main aim of the assessment is to assist the victims to cope with the crisis and reassure them of safety.

The contextual ecological model like all other models defines the cause of the crisis while assuring the victim of safety from another crisis of that sort. It also entails support to the affected people and a form of a concern by engaging in trying to determine ways coping and living through the crisis. The counselors or those supporting the victim should make a commitment to be with them throughout the difficult time. The support team ensures a plan to work through the situation, and little or no work should be given to the victim in trying to figure out the crisis. This model appears to be more theoretical as it is more of organizing how to deal with the problem at hand.

Question 2

This contextual ecological model entails a number of events in order to accomplish the objective of determining the impact of the crisis. This model gives an indication of the physical attachment of the crisis to the individual and how close it happens to be to the victim. That aspect is known as proximity to the distance which in this case is physical. The second factor on how close the victim is to the matter entails the reactions that are observed in the event of the crisis. The reactions are determined to what the crisis means to the individual. For instance, a soccer student who is shot on his leg and suffers a great crisis may react to the fact that he may not manage to play again which might be his passion. Likewise, a singer who suffers from a throat cancer may not be able to sing again, and the reaction would be as a result of the value the singer had for his passion for singing. Therefore, this model attempts to explain the reaction degree of a crisis to an individual by how close the person was to that particular damaged part or system.

This model refers to a second premier whereby the impact of the crisis on the relationships of the individual and his system or surrounding is viewed. This model portrays the need to develop trust between the individual and his system which involves assurance of zero probability of the crisis recurring. A primary relationship is established when the victim believes that the crisis will not repeat itself. Thus, the victim decides to feel safe and sound since the system will take precaution and all possible measures to prevent the occurrence of such a crisis. However, this may not always be the case as when other parties that are not part of the victim’s system interfere a secondary relationship develops. Thus, the family of the victim is always the party that destroys the trust or security that one might have with the system. The impacts of a crisis not only affect the individuals but also those who care about them. Anger being the cause of mistrust takes effect and the individual is influenced to break it hence a secondary relationship is established (Gilliland, 19888).

The other premier viewed in the contextual ecological theory is the time taken for the impacts on the crisis in order to surface after the victim’s reactions. Therefore, the time might be either short or long depending on the closeness and also the meaning of the crisis to the life of the individual. Cases of a financial misfit of a family can greatly impact on the children since they may lack the money for their school and this would not take long before it is noticed. A family that has lost a loved one probably the bread winner immediately may suffer from the negative impacts. However, some crisis take long before the impacts float up, and this may include cases of political instability when country may face economical downfalls after a long time. This model also highlights the events that follow after a crisis and this are probably anniversaries in the case of death or other occasions. Moreover, most events that follow entail so much grief and suffering. It should, therefore, be noted that this model includes a series of interventions that complement each other for one to come up with the impacts of the crisis.

Question 3

Nonetheless, this model comes with limitations of not having a practical event where it is put in place, applied, and results are made. For a model to be useful it has to come with evidences that it was actually fruitful in yielding the expected results. Therefore, the model is to be used and proved to work. Theoretically, it is successful, but a practical incident is yet to be covered to prove its existence as useful in crisis intervention and assessment.

Question 4

This model fails to highlight the professionals needed to act on this model or if any person can use it even on themselves as victims. Each model should mention if the process can be managed by other people apart from the professional. This is because counseling or healing from a crisis can be done individually without help from a counselor by reading related books.

Question 5and 6

In view of this, an example of a school where a student is shot dead within the compound can entail this model to establish the impact of the crime on the parents of the child who is shot on his leg. The parents may influence their child due to anger and sorrow not to trust the school and it’s his safety; furthermore this may pass down to the rest of the students hence the school management suffers as well as the family of the student who is shot. Thus, a conclusion can be drawn that the contextual ecological model aims at determining the impacts of a crisis using the physical relationship and closeness to individuals and their system within a specific period of time.

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