Oct 3, 2018 in Medicine

Introduction

In the past, people used to loose their teeth more often due to lack of knowledge. This led to persistent pain on the mouth caused by the tooth. At one point in life, a person knows how a toothache feels. Toothache is an extremely disturbing pain that can never be healed with the use of painkillers. For this reason, the only way to heal the tooth was to remove the tooth from the mouth completely to eradicate the excruciating pain. By the time a person was at the age of thirty-five, there were no teeth left. On the other hand, people did not have healthy teeth as a result they suffered from the different ailments of the teeth. However, one of the most significant inventions made in the field of dentistry was the invention of dental stone. The paper is about dental laboratory stones, from definition, how it is made to how its being applied in the laboratories.

Process of Making Dental Stones

Dental stones are made from gypsum rock. Gypsum rock is form of hydrated calcium sulfate that is commonly found in nature. This rock is harvested from the different quarries all over the world. After harvesting the gypsum rock, it is taken to the industry where the other processes of creating the stones are made. In the industries, the gypsum rock is first polarized and heated to remove all the moistures that may be available in the rock. In this case, the gypsum rock forms a finished product known as plaster of Paris. For the dental stone, the gypsum stone is polarized and then it is autoclaved creating a powder like substance. This process is referred to as calcination. Calcination is the removal of water from the hydrated calcium sulfate to form hemihydrated calcium sulfate (Wilkins, 2009).

Calcination

Hydrated calcium sulfate - heat and other processes - hemihydrated calcium sulfate

This is the finished product ready to be used. It is usually packed and transported in powder form but it can only be used in form of a paste before it dries. Therefore, when the water is going to be introduced, the process is referred to a reverse reaction. This is because calcination is the removal of water thus the introduction of water is the reverse reaction. When heat is released, the reaction is exothermic. However, the most amazing thing is that dental stones can be presumed hard to make yet, it is an easy step to make in the industry for medical and laboratory purposes. It is worth noting that dental stones are harder and durable as compared to the other products of gypsum due to the process of making the product in the industry.

It is worth noting that all the gypsum products have the same product. However, many companies have recently been using different colors to differentiate the gypsum products. In this case, most of the companies have added a cream white color so that the people who are intending to use the product can identify. The other companies use pink or blue if the dental stones created continue to be stronger. Therefore, depending on the different companies, the final product can have different colors. The picture below shows the different colors of dentures using dental stones.

Characteristics of Dental Stones

The first characteristic of dental stones is strong. The dental stones are extremely strong as compared to the other products of gypsum. In order for them to be broken, a person requires a lot of energy to do so. Additionally, they are extremely durable as compared to the other products of gypsum. This is because they can withstand a lot of heat and other activities without even a sign of being destroyed or even a scratched. For this reason, they have more strong application as compared to the other gypsum products (Dietz, 2006).

Secondly, they are dense, regularly shaped to any form and non-porous materials. They are dense because of the durable and strength nature. They can be made to form any shape that one wants. However, when they are dry they cannot be shaped into any form. They are non-porous meaning that nothing can go through them. This means that dental stones are extremely strong, can be shaped in any form when wet but can let anything pass through it. The process of crating the dental stones has led it to have such characteristics. These characteristics have led the applications of the dental stones.

Medical Application of Dental Stones

There many applications of the dental stones but the main application of the dental stones is in the medical field. In the medical field, dental stones are applied in dental field. Dental field can be defined as the medicine of treating human teeth. In this case, dental stones are applicable in either treating the patient or treating teaching dental students in laboratories. In such a situation, structures are created for the purposes of showing the students different ailments they are expected to see in the line of their duty (Elton & O'higgins, 2008).

These structures are referred to as study model. The study models are made by the dentists while they are examining the patients. When a patient visits a dentist, the dentist tells the patients to bite on a soft place for the purposes of getting their dental structure (Elton & O'higgins, 2008). With this dental structure on a soft place which can easily be manipulated. For this reason, they require strong materials that are durable to maintain the structure. Therefore, after forming the dental structure of the patient on a soft place the dentist puts the dental stone on the structure to come with the decoy (Elton & O'higgins, 2008). While the dental stone is in the soft place, a vibrator is used to remove any air bubbles that might form. Finally, they the dental stone is left to dry. Afterwards, the soft thing is removed and the study decoy is left.

In this case, study decoy has two purposes. One of the purposes is diagnosing the patient using the study decoy. When the dentist is using the study decoy, he or she can be able to observe what he could not observe in the patient mouth. Therefore, he can be able to come up with a conclusive diagnosis. On the other hand, the dental structure is not put in a waste bin. Instead, it is taken to the dental schools where dental students are taught what the patient was suffering and how they can be able to treat such an ailment (Elton & O'higgins, 2008). It can be noted that the study decoy can stay for long without destruction until somebody decides to throw it away or destroy. For this fact, the dental stones are used. Below are examples of study decoys.

On the other hand, there are different types of ailments that can affect the teeth. For this reason, dental researchers have been searching for ways to use in curing patients who are diagnosed with ailments affecting the teeth. In this case, dental stones are currently being used as way of curing people teeth. Dental researchers realized that dental stones could not only be used to teach dental students, it can also be used to cure the patients. In the process, they have developed procedures to treat the ailments (Elton & O'higgins, 2008).

The first procedure in dental field is whitening the teeth. In their original form, dental stones are white in color. In most case, when dentists are cleaning patient teeth, they apply dental stones on the teeth so that they can appear to be whiter than they were before visiting the dentist (Tomko, 2009). In this case, the doctor first cleans the teeth with other materials to ensure there is no dirt in the surfaces of the teeth. Secondly, they dry the teeth of the patient and remove other particles to ensure there is no contamination of the dental stones. Finally, they apply dental stones to make the teeth appear whiter than before.

The second procedure is the treatment of damage crown tissues. In this case, the crown of the tooth may be destroyed. On the other hand, the part that supports the crown might be destroyed. For this reason, the dentist needs to fit in a crown to strengthen the tooth and cure it completely. The dentist uses the procedure of making a study décor to make one for the patients for the purposes of establishing the magnitude of the disease. After making the study decoy, the dentists establishes the magnitude of problem. Using a metal, the dentist uses the dental stones to create a crown that would be fitted in the destroyed tooth (Tomko, 2009).

The final application or procedure dental researcher was treating of tooth decay. When a tooth starts decay, in take times before it reaches the sensory nerve ending. This means that if it reaches the sensory nerve it is already worse and it needs to be removed. However, for those who have a tooth decay and it has not reached the sensory nerve ending, it needs to be filled with a strong durable material that will not be destroyed. In this case, the dentist has to mix a small amount of dental stones in order to fill the decay and cure the tooth. In this case, the dentist ensures that there is no saliva in the surrounding for a perfect application of the dental stones in the decay (Tomko, 2009).

Other Application of the Dental Stones

Dental stones have many applications in the world but there are few common applications. One of the common application of dental stones for creating toys by the children. For example, in the class, teachers use the dental stones to create objects for the children in which they can use them to study and for other purposes. In this case, the teacher can make a table or a car to show the children how a car looks. On the other hand, the teacher can decide to ask the children to make a bowl or cup so that he or she can identify whether the children have understood. In this application, the children are usually warned not to hit one another with the stones since they are extremely strong and they can cause injuries.

Second, the dental stones can be used in the field of art. Artist can use anything to create a piece of art. In this case, there are artists who use the dental stones to express their feelings with the use of dental stones to make a piece of art. Some artist might use the dental stones alone while other artists might use the dental stones together with other materials to create a piece of art. This is because of the characteristic of dental stones being molded into any shape. Additionally, after the dental stones have dried, they cannot be destroyed. In this case, the piece or art created from this material is permanent. For this reason, some artists fills that it is the best material for creating art. In the diagram below, it is a piece of art using dental stone as the material.

It is worth noting that dental stones should be order a few days before they are going to be used. This is because dental stones cannot be stored for long because they tend to absorb moisture or water from the air. For this reason, dentists who require using dental stones should not buy in bulk for the purposes of storing in case they need it because, it cannot treat the patients since it will always be contaminated[7]. Instead, it would turn out to be a loss and yet the dentists were trying to save money (Henderson, 2006).

Differences of Dental Stones and other Gypsum Products

Dental stones and the gypsum products are similar to each other in that they are made using gypsum. However, this does not mean they are similar. Therefore, one of the differences between dental stones and the other products is the procedure they are used making them. In gypsum, the materials are polarized then autoclaved. In contrast, the other gypsum products are polarized and heated. This shows that in the second procedure of making is different in that dental stones are autoclaved while the other gypsum products are heated to remove moisture.

The other difference is that dental stones are extremely hard and durable as compared to the other gypsum products. According to the composition of dental stones, they are extremely compact as compared to the other gypsum products that are loose. This shows that the dental stones are stronger to the other gypsum products. Finally, the dental stones are considered to extremely dense. This is because of the process used to make the dental stones. On the other hard, the other products of gypsum are soft and less densely. This is because due to the process that is used to make dental stones, they are harder and durable as compared to the plasters. For this reason, dental stones are made of gypsum from a process that is more different to the process of making plasters yet they use the same material (Griffiths, R., & Nestlerode, 2007).

Dental stones are less porous as compared to the other gypsum materials. According to the process dental stones go through before they are in their final product, it is extremely different from the other gypsum products. The dental stones have compact crystals which do not allow anything to ass through the easily once they have dried off. On the other hand, the other gypsum products are less compact. In this case, they can allow something to go through them. This shows that dental stones are less porous as compared to the other gypsum products that are a bit porous.

Conclusion

Dental stones or die stones can be described as products made from gypsum rock for the purposes of medical and other uses. The process of making dental stones from gypsum rock is referred to as calcination where the hydrated calcium sulfate is transformed into hemihydrated calcium sulfate. In this process, moisture is removed from the gypsum rock and then it autoclaved to create gypsum rock. In this case, the dental stones are in powder form ready to use. The main characteristics of dentals stones are; one, the dental stones are hard and durable. They can withstand any resistance without breaking. Second, they are non-porous. Dental stones are mainly applied in the dental field where students are taught using study decoys made from dental stones. Secondly, a dentist uses the decoys to diagnose the patient. Additionally, they are used in treating the patients. On the other hand, it is used in classrooms for teaching children and making artifacts. However, as the world is changing researchers are continuing to establish other applications of the dental stones.

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