Diabetes Mellitus Problem

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases today. In this disease, many medicaments impair insulin and the toxins impair the pancreas. Insulin is involved in sugar metabolism and utilizes glucose in short supply, resulting in increased levels of glucose in the blood and the body's cells do not get it. The disease is manifested by numerous violations of virtually all systems of the body, it occurs chronically, and is considered incurable. As maintenance therapy, usually life-long, continuous use of the insulin is supporting the necessary exchange of carbohydrates. Today it is the only effective way to oppose the destruction of the body as a result of diabetes. Disease affects people of all ages, including children.

Since 2007, November 14 is held under the auspices of the UN World Day of Diabetes, established in 1991. According to statistics, nearly 26 million people in the U.S. suffer from diabetes,  and each year more than 2 million people are diagnosed with diabetes in the young generation under 20 years of age. According to the same statistics people with diabetes earn less than their peers, they are given more difficult because of illness studies, and, therefore, it is harder for them to find a more prestigious job. Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for cancer of the colon and rectum cancer, increasing by almost 40% chance of incidence of these cancers (Drucker and Nauck, 2006).
Diabetes slowly kills, leading to death if not clearly comply with all destination experts and ensure that the disease has progressed. The death rate from diabetes increased over the years. The main reason for this growth is the late diagnosis of diabetes. Almost 50% of people with diabetes are unaware of their illness and do not have timely appropriate treatment. When the diagnosis of diabetes is known, the pancreas does not function properly, resulting a growing number of complications from the disease and, consequently, increases mortality. Another reason to encourage the development of diabetes complications, and, consequently, an increased risk of mortality, is the right treatment, the required level of hemoglobin A1C levels should be supported. According to statistics, only about 6-7% of patients with diabetes achieve the necessary level of hemoglobin A1C levels.

A new kind of insulin
A research team consisting of representatives of the Israeli pharmaceutical company “Oramed Pharmaceuticals” and medical clinics "Hadassah" began the final stage of clinical trials of a new type of insulin (medicines to treat diabetes), which is used for the treatment of insulin-dependent form of diabetes. Fundamentally, the new way to use the drug, as opposed to the regular insulin does not require a new drug injection, and is administered orally as a capsule (Drucker and Nauck, 2006). This type of medication will improve the lives of millions of people with diabetes of the second type, and will relieve them from making forced sometimes several times a day painful injections.

A new treatment for type 1 diabetes by glucokinase
Israel scientists from the University of Jerusalem, are working on the basis of Hadassah Hospital in order, to open mechanism, which will rule the regeneration of pancreatic cells responsible for insulin production. In the current research, the result of which will be the remedy for the treatment of diabetes, this locking mechanism, it makes it possible to restore the insulin cells of the pancreas and the normal production of insulin, which would not only address the symptoms of diabetes, as is currently the case, but to completely cure disease.
  It is known that in patients with type 1 diabetes, the cells responsible for the production of insulin (called beta cells) are attacked by the immune system of the body, because sometimes mistaken for foreign tissue cells. As a result of the death of beta cells reduces the production of insulin, and starts the mechanism of diabetes mellitus. A team of scientists found that the increase in blood glucose by the enzyme glucokinase stimulates the regeneration of beta cells of the pancreas.
The type II diabetes is the most common diabetes and it is a progressive disease. The disease due to the reduced efficiency of tablets has to switch to insulin, which is still the best to achieve the optimal level of blood sugar. It is proved that the administration of insulin in the early stages of the disease can reduce the risk of complications of diabetes, and if the treatment started immediately after the diagnosis, you can even stop the development of diabetes, which will allow the patient in the next few years to maintain the necessary level of sugar in the blood without everyday doses of insulin. There are modern forms of insulin, such as insulin "Lantus", it allows maintaining an optimal level of basal insulin only with one injection per day, and the usage for these purposes pen "Solo Star", facilitates the introduction of the drug. It is important to remember that people with diabetes should strictly follow the instructions of the doctor, in such a case the quality of life will improve significantly and it will be full and happy. (Sinha, Rajan, Hoerger & Pogach, 2010).
The new drug DiaPep277, developed by Israeli experts, promises to be a sensation in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. A clinical trial of the drug in human volunteers was successful in this case; the experiment showed a positive result as the primary treatment of type 1 diabetes and stabilized blood sugar levels. Israel scientists have shown that a new drug DiaPep277 prevents the destruction of pancreatic cells, causing them to function normally. A very important fact is that the vaccine DiaPep277, which is done every three months, slows the progression of the disease and can inhibit the development of type 1 diabetes.

The results of the study show that it met its main objectives, and there was a noticeable change in the level of C-peptide at the end of the study. Levels of C-peptide is a marker for the evaluation section of the endogenous insulin cells of the pancreas, which was demonstrated in patients treated with the drug but in comparison. Reduction of C-peptide was greater in the placebo group than in therapy group. Initial data on safety also indicate that DiaPep277 is well tolerated. No major differences related to drug side effects were reported between the groups (Sinha, Rajan, Hoerger & Pogach, 2010).

Additional analysis of the clinical data, the efficacy and safety data from this study continue. The final part of the second global Phase 3 study of the drug DiaPep277 is currently being conducted in approximately 120 medical centers in the U.S., Canada, Europe, Israel and Argentina.

At present there is no therapy capable of preventing the destruction of the pancreatic cells, the drug is designed to treat DiaPep277 newly diagnosed in adult patients with type 1 diabetes, other potential target groups for the treatment of diabetes drug DiaPep277 population is children with diabetes of the first type, patients with high risk. As reported health portal Infomed.co.il, judging by the results of the preliminary analysis, the clinical trial of the revolutionary drug is successful. The experiment involved 457 people aged from 16 to 45 years, who shortly before the start of the experiment had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 1. The study showed that patients treated for a year with one injection of DiaPep277 every three months maintain normal function of the pancreas which releases insulin. Moreover, the experiment showed positive results not only for the initial treatment of diabetes type 1, but also stabilized patients’ blood sugar levels as a whole. 45.3% of the participants, due to this drug, for the duration of the experiment maintained normal blood sugar levels.

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