The content has changed over the centuries as well as changing needs of society and living conditions. Today, a there is no simple answer to the question of why nursing is very difficult. Now there are many definitions of the term. Each of them appears under the influence of a number of factors: the particular historical period, the socio-economic level and geographic location, the number of nurses and job responsibilities, attitudes and experience of the person who explains the meaning of this term. If you ask people of all ages, everybody walks of life to determine what nursing is, we get different interpretations. (Taylor R, Taylor R. 2012)
First scientific definition of a specialty "Nursing" was given by F. Nightingale in "Notes on Care" (1859). She believed that nursing is the "action on the use of the surrounding environment to the patient facilitate its recovery”. With the goal of nursing care was stated: "Make the best conditions for the patient activation of its own strength. "By "best conditions".
Nightingale meant clean, fresh air, proper nutrition. Calling nursing art, she felt that this art requires "Organization, practical and scientific training". F. Nightingale was sure that nursing as a profession is different from medical practice and requires special, non-medical, knowledge.
One of the definitions of nursing owned by an American nurse, teacher and researcher Virginia Henderson. International Council of Nurses in 1958, turned to her with a request to articulate the value of this term and write a book about the fundamental principles of patient care. It was called "Basic principles of care the patient" and was translated into 25 languages. Definition of nursing by W. Henderson in 1961 is still relevant. Firmly believing that nursing is essential B. Henderson argues that the unique challenge of a nurse is to help the sick or healthy person implementing actions related to his health, recovery or peaceful death, no matter what he has made himself, having necessary forces, knowledge and will. A nurse carries this work by helping the patient to perform all assignments prescribed by doctor, and quickly become independent. She is a member of the team medical assistance, assistance to colleagues and others involved in the planning and execution of the full program of action - whether it is disease prevention, cure or support for the dying.
None of the teams can be attributed to different equally difficult responsibilities that will prevent implementation of direct functions. None of the medical staff should be distracted from performing its primary task, despite the need to tide up, take notes, record, and perform other actions. All healthcare workers should be aware that the central figure is the patient, and they are all called to serve him. Health teams’ efforts will be in vain unless the patient accepts help and does not participate in it.
This view of the nurse, as the replacement of that lacks of the patient may seem somewhat limited. However, it is not. Reach called that the goal is difficult, so the tasks and functions of nurse are very complex. How often are people mentally and physically "whole and intact "? What is the extent to which good health is hereditary? It is believed that level of mental development and education relates to the state health. And if good health is difficult to achieve for most people, then the nurse helps the person to achieve these goals, which are much more complicated.
Nursing today is both an art and science. It also requires understanding and applying special knowledge and skills. Nursing is based on the theory and practice established on the basis of arts and sciences like biology, medicine, psychology, sociology, etc. Medical nurse takes responsibility and acts with proper responsibilities, performing professional duties, and being responsible for the medical services that she provides. She has the right to decide whether she needs to continue the education for management, training, work in the clinic and research, and whether to take steps to meet these needs.
Mission nursing in society helps individuals, families and groups to develop their physical, mental and social capacity and maintain it at an appropriate level that does not change living and working conditions. This requires nurses to work in order to maintain good health and disease prevention. New nursing is the need to change the basis of current practice. The new concept will replace the established hierarchical and bureaucratic system of organizational professional nursing model. Highly practical nurse should have sufficient knowledge and skills in order to plan, implement and evaluate care that meets the needs of a particular patient. In this case, special emphasis is placed on the unique contribution of nursing care to the recovery and rehabilitation of the patient. (Taylor R, Taylor R. 2012)
It is to help the individuals, families and groups of people to define and achieve their physical, mental and social health in a changing environment in which they live and work. This will require the certain functions performance by nurses in order to promote and preserve health and prevent disease.
Let us consider the fact about nursing and diabetes. The role of nurses in the care of patients with diabetes is of a different nature than that of a qualified doctor, but it is equally important. It requires not only training, but also many human qualities.
Nursing process is a set of five activities. First on is survey. Nurse gathers information about the patient and his state of health. It consists of personal perceptions of the patient, and of nurse’s personal observations. As a result of the first stage the documents with the information must be prepared in order to create patients illness history.
Second activity is to identify problems with diabetes and stage nursing diagnosis.
The nurse must determine not only the problems that already exist, but also those that are possible in the future. With all the problems identified, nurse must allocate and pay close attention to the most threatening at this time. Nursing includes planning and implementation of care during illness and recovery period, affecting not only the physical but also the psychological and social aspects of life. (Eddy DM. Practice policies: 2012). Nursing diagnosis and the diagnosis of a doctor are not the same things. The doctor identifies the problems that diabetes causes to health, and nurse identifies the difficulties that arise because of these problems.
Third activity is setting goals and planning the nursing process. The plan must include short-term and long-term goals, and contain a detailed explanation of how, when and with what they will be achieved. Actions of nurses are recorded in the history of the disease. (Eddy DM. Practice policies: 2012)
Fourth activity is the implementation of the goals. At this stage, the nurse should take measures to prevent various diseases, as well as screening, treatment and rehabilitation of patients with diabetes. There are three types of nursing process, which are selected for each patient individually. The nurse does the things prescribed by the doctor under his constant supervision. She determines what actions are required at the particular moment of time. Nurse and doctor mutually stipulate their actions. However, none of these types of intervention diminish the responsibilities of nurses.
Last but not least is the effectiveness of nursing care. Nursing care is based on all the data observed in the dynamics of aggregate. Nursing act is the result of a patient suffering from diabetes or any other disease.