Helicobacter Pylori

The article on ‘Helicobacter pylori’ is a summary paper of a research conducted to investigate the relationship of the bacteria and diabetes. The study conducted involved analysis of existing data based on medical examinations that had been earlier conducted. The article describes the various examinations, methods used for data collection and analysis as well as the inferences drawn from the study.


Earlier research findings indicated thatHelicobacter pylori is closely linked to diabetes, the bacteria is actively involved in the regulation of two hormones produced in mammalian stomachs. The two hormones, leptin and ghrelin are actively involved in the regulation of sugar levels.

Data Collection Methods

The study involved analysis of data from various groups of people which was later used to draw conclusions regarding the bacteria. The information analyzed related to the following surveys that had been earlier conducted:

  • Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III-A survey conducted on 7417 participants aged below 18 years
  • Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2000)-A survey conducted on 6072 participants aged below 3 years

The first study for participants below the age of 18 involved the medical examination of the people in order to test for antibodies “immunoglobulin antibodies” and the results were classified into three groups. The classification was made on the basis of positive and negative results for both Helicobacter pylori and CagA.

For the second study aimed at children below the age of three years a similar approach was adopted and the Helicobacter pylori status determined and classified.

Observations Made

From the first survey it was observed that; self –reported diabetes and Helicobacter pylori did not show any correlation, H, pylori negativity was closely linked to Cag A negativity and so was positivity.

From the second survey it was observed that; HbA1c levels were closely linked to the bacteria. H. pylori was also proportional to body mass index (BMI),

A comparison of the two results indicated that increasing stages of HbA1c linked with both Helicobacter pylori and BMI .This overall effect of the last observation had greater influence as compared to the influence of either of the other two working individually.

Data Analysis

Statistical data analysis methods usingproc survey measures ,a standard of SAS, were employed for data analysis ,To compare H. pylori to HbA1c, descriptive analysis were carried out and multiple linear regression models drawn to depict their correlation. Special cases were analyzed such as cases where Insulin patients had been secluded. Other cases that were analyzed involved analysis of factors such as mass index, effects of smoking among others.

Result Implications

The results indicates that for adults not suffering from diabetes, unlike in children, increased body mass is directly proportional to levels of HbA1c.Both HbA1c and body mass are closely linked to the presence of Helicobacter pylori. It is impossible to relate self-reported diabetes cases with Helicobacter pylori. In addition positivity in h, pylori closely correlate with positivity in CagA. Earlier studies however, had provided different inferences likely to have occurred due to inaccurate observations and interpretation of results.


The accuracy of research, especially in a medical field is pegged on a variety of factors. An understanding of the field is a key to drawing right conclusions as well as in making meaningful observations. The willingness of respondents and their ability to recall also plays a major role in determining the accuracy of the final results. 

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