A. Definition: Human cloning refers to the production of human being or an organism that has the same gene composition as those of the original one (Johnson, 2011).
B. Countries, which allow human cloning: Netherlands, China, Finland, Japan, South Korea, and Britain
C. Types of Human Cloning
- Reproductive cloning
- Therapeutic cloning
A. Therapeutic Cloning: Therapeutic cloning is the first type of human cloning. Skin cells are extracted from patient and put into a nucleus free fertilized egg and in return the scientists gets some stem cells that are used to produce tissue cells that match the patients genes (Harris, 2007).
- Human cloning can help the future by saving lives by finding cures can help the future by saving lives, and finding cures for specific types of diseases.
(a) Many scientists feel that therapeutic cloning is not really cloning because the embryo is not allowed to love beyond 4-5 days, but the cloning process is the same.
(b) Human cloning is of importance since the stem cells obtained can be used to give medical cure to diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease.
(c) Therapeutic cloning can also help in treating a burnt patient whereby the procedure is carried out to generate skin for the patient (Harris, 2007).
(d) There are many ethical questions raised with regard to therapeutic cloning and this has led to defense of the procedure by scientists who state that though the cloning procedure is followed, therapeutic cloning is not actual cloning since the embryo is destroyed before 5 days are over (Harris, 2007).
B. Reproductive Cloning
Reproductive cloning refers to implantation of a cloned embryo into a human being with the primary aim of having it develop into a child or another human life (Hayry et al., 2007). The child created via this process is supposed to be of a specific kind meaning that the cloned child is a complete replica or twin of the gene donor.
(a) Human cloning can help advance embryonic stem cell research.
(b) Reproductive cloning denies the society the chance of having naturally occurring human beings through procreation (who are diversified) and instead, promotes the creation of only certain kinds of people through replication.
- In 2001, the Human Reproductive Cloning (HRC) Act enacted a law that stated, “A person who places in a woman a human embryo, which has been created otherwise than by fertilization is guilty of an offence" (Knowles & Kaebnick, 2007). Reproductive cloning has not been successful in cloning any human life but if it did, some of the benefits would include; reproductive cloning would help infertile women and men to have children with a certain gene percentage of their own. It would also help parents to have consolation after their child passes on since reproductive cloning would make it possible to have a replica of the child who has passed on. However, as of to date, reproductive cloning is considered unsafe for mammals.
(a) Human cloning is a concept that carries potential to improve human life though there are many ethical and moral questions attached to it.
(b) The two main types of human cloning are therapeutic and reproductive cloning.
(c) Human cloning has some advantages in that it can help in getting medical cure for disorders such as diabetes. It can also help infertile women to have children.