Oct 3, 2018 in Medicine

Chapter 46
Question one
Respiratory track infections affect the infants and young children. What factors can increase resistance of these infections?
a)      lack of allergies, birth defects and proper preparedness of the seasonal weather variations
b)      use of medication
c)      exposure to direct sunlight
d)      intake of herbal medicine
Answer (a)
Rationale
It is believed that a young child immune system is deficient of some nutrients that are helpful in the body in fighting diseases. In this case, if the factors that lead to respiratory track infections were prevented, it would increase the chances of a child not getting infections.
Page 1304
Question Two
What is the nursing care plan for children with acute respiratory track infections to ensure there are no secondary infections?
a)      Administer anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator and antibiotics medication where necessary.
b)      Use of medical therapy
c)      Ensure that the child does no acquire new infection
d)      Offer a good diet to the child
Answer (a)
Rationale
It is believed that when a child is positioned correctly it will improve the breathing and open the drainage system of the child. Secondly, if oxygenation is monitored, it will improve oxygenation and the medication will suppress the symptoms reducing any infections that might affect the child.
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Question Three
In many case, when children are infected with respiratory track infections, they can often lead to secondary infections. What nursing care should be provided to prevent secondary infections?
Answer
Secondary infections are extremely dangerous if they occur. For this reason, it is the main aim of the nurse to prevent this from occurring. Therefore, the following care should be provided.
a)      Proper medication should be provided and proper clothing for the child should be provided to cater for the body temperature of the body
b)      Taking the child to crowded places
c)      Offer herbal medicine and treatments
d)      Use of bed rests as a method of treating
Answer (a)
Rationale
            Secondary infections are dangerous. Therefore, any chances that will lead to secondary infections should be avoided. In this case, crowded places and smoke should be avoided while administering proper medication.
Page 1314
Question four
Pneumonia is one of the most dangerous respiratory track infections. Surveys show that pneumonia can be deadly but if well-managed children can be treated. What are the different cares that should be provide to the child?
Answer
If detected early the following care should be provided.

Care should be provided at home
Antibiotics and other medication should be provided to the child if possible
Fluids should be administered more than solids
The nurse should explain all this to the caregiver to ensure proper care
If detected late it means that the child should be hospitalized. In this case, the nurse should
Monitor all the respiratory airways for the child
Make sure that the child take in fluids
Supplementary oxygenation can be provided if required
In some cases, a child may be required to use tubes if the case is serious. The nurse should
Ensure that the tubes function properly at all times
Fluid foods should be given. No solid foods should be provide for the child
Antibiotics and other proper medications should be provided to the patient
Rationale
            Pneumonia is an extremely dangerous infection if not properly managed. It is believed that to suppress the infection the child should have proper rest, more foods that are fluid and antibiotics to prevent secondary infections. If detected early, care should be provided at home for parental care but if serious, the child should be hospitalized for the purposes advanced treatment.
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Question Five
Children with other medical conditions are usually at risk of attracting other infections. For this reason, children need more attention to prevent them from attracting other infections. What activities should the nurse do to prevent secondary infection for children with other medical condition?
Answers
The nurse should checking what is the other medical conditions
Airborne diseases should be checked. In this case, the child should prevent from areas where there are crowded people
Therapy should be administered
Caregivers of the child should be educated on the dangers of this infections
Rationale
It is believed that children with other medical conditions are vulnerable to attracting other infections when they are sick. According to medical researchers, these children should be given extra care to prevent this from happening.
Page 1329
Chapter 47
Question One
What are the major types of vegetarianism?
Answer
Lacto-ovo vegetarians – they exclude meat in their diets but take in dairy products and they rarely take fish as part of their diet.
Lactovegetarians – they do not take meat and eggs but they drink milk as part of their diet
 Pure vegetarians (vegans) – they do not take ay food that has originated from animals
Macrobiotics – they do not take any food that has originated from animals, some fruits and legumes
Semi vegetarians – they do not take meat in their diet but they take fish and poultry
Rationale
In America, there has been an increase in the number of vegetarians to for the purposes of avoiding disorders. In this case, they have introduced groups of vegetarians that have continually grown.
Page 1365
Question Two
What is the diet needed to treat a patient with protein-energy malnutrition?
Answer
The diet should include the following nutrients
High levels of proteins
Carbohydrates
Vitamins
Minerals
Rationale
Many patients do not know how to treat a child suffering from protein-energy malnutrition for this reason; parents should know the nutrients required to treat this disorder.
Page 1369
Question Three
When parents are buying baby formula for their children, they might buy those that affect their children. They may have cow milk allergy. Parents need to know the symptoms so that they can avoid buy formulas with high cow proteins. What are the symptoms of a child suffering from cow milk allergy?
Answer
Diarrhea
Vomiting
Abdominal pains
Bronchitis asthma
Sneezing
Wheezing
Chronic nasal discharge
Excessive crying
Rationale
It is extremely valuable for parents to buy baby formulas for the healthy growth of a child. However, children have certain allergies to these formulas. In this case, children require special attention to reduce occurrence of being affected to the allergies. For this reason, milk allergies are symptoms are important to educate parent if they come across such symptoms.
Page 1372
Question Four
In most cases, nurses may come in to offer advice to parents on the correct diets for kids. This is to ensure that children will grow in a healthy way. What dietary advice should nurse give to patient?
Answer
Encourage parents to offer children a whole nutrient diets
Ensure that the food is cooked perfectly to kill any germs that could be harmful to the health of a child
Avoid deficiency in some nutrients
Food should be store properly to ensure no nutrients are lost
Prevent soaking foods in water
Rationale
Parents tend to forget when they are feeding children and offer them what they want. They forget about offering a child what he or she needs. In this case, the nurse reminds them to provide a proper diet for the child for proper growth.
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Question Five
What are the major goals for managing acute diarrhea?
Answer
Fluid imbalance and electrolyte imbalance should be assessed
To ensure there is enough water in the blood
To maintain the fluid intake is continuous
To introduce a proper diet
Rationale
These goals ensure that the parents do not repeat what they were doing before to lead to this disorder.
Chapter 48
Question One
One of the health problems that affect children is heart failure. In most case, it might be extremely difficult for the parents to administer care. For this reason, what care can a nurse educate the parents to administer?
Answer
The nurse should first begin by offering both the patients and the child emotional support
Secondly, the child should be under intensive care unit. In this case, the nurse should try to reduce cardiac strain of the heart muscles that are causing failure
Oxygen should be administered as a disease with right proportions
The nurses should ensure they have educated the parents on all this methods. This will ensure that they are doing the right thing for the child.
Rationale
            It is believed that parents and immediate caregivers of the child help in improving the health of a child during heart failure. In this case, if they are educated in time they can help in improving the health of the child.
Page 1460
Question Two
Congenital heart disease is one of the most dangerous heart diseases that can affect a child. The family members of the child are usually shocked when they learn that their child has been affected by the congenital heart disease. In this case, they also need care together with child. Therefore, what care is provided to the family?
Answer
Emotional support is required to calm the shock
Therapy is required for the family members so that they can understand that their child is not dying
They need to be educate ways to help the child improve health
Rationale
According to statistics, the immediate family members play a significant role in helping a child who has congenital heart disease. For this reason, if they are not taken care of, they can have a nervous break down affecting the child’s health negatively.
Page 1468
Question Three
What are the examples of cardiovascular disorders?
Answer
Bacterial (infective) Endocarditis
Cardiac Dysrhythimias
Cardiomyopathy
Rationale
These diseases are extremely rare to occur in a child but they cannot be ignored. In this case, parents and nurses should learn how to prevent them despite the fact they are rare.
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Question Four
What measures should be taken before performing heart transplant for a young child?
Answer
Blood samples of the child should be taken
Perform a complete cardiac evaluation to establish whether there are other options
Psychological evaluation of the family and the child to establish the support of the family towards the patient
Finally, the other organ system should be assessed to establish whether there might be problems in the event of a heart transplant
Rationale
Heart transplant for a child has becoming increasingly popular in hospitals to solve most of these heart failures. However, if not correctly accessed the patient might die. For this reason, measures should be taken to ensure that the transplant occurs smoothly.
Page 1479
Question Five
What are the three stages identified for septic shock?
Answer
The first stage is the early stage where the patient experiences some chills, fever and vasodilatations.
The second stage last only for a few hours where the skin cools and blood pressure is normal
The third stage is the stage of shock where the cardiovascular functions continues to worsen
Rationale
These are for the purposes of giving the family members and caregivers advance knowledge incase they notice this stages in their child. For this reason, family members will know what to do.
Page 1486
Chapter 49
Question One
What are the consequences of anemia?
Answer
It causes greater amounts of blood to return to the heart
It may lead to cardiac failure
Older children might take long before they mature
It can cause growth retardation for children
Rationale
Many children might have some difficulties when they are growing up and the parents might mistakes these problems to be caused by other problems. For this reason, the aim of learning the consequences is to understand some of the effects that might appear if a child would appear to have some of these problems.
Page 1492
Question Two
What are the main objectives of treating sickle cell anemia?
Answer
To minimize energy loss and oxygen being used
For the provision of hydration through oral and therapy
For the purposes of blood replacement
Providing antibiotics for treating any infections
Providing dyclorite replacements
Rationale
This is for the purposes of ensuring the nurse and the parents of the child understand the television.
Page 1497
Question Three
What are the effects of decreased red blood cell production?
Answer
Nutritional deficiency
Born marrow failure
Rationale
The main aim is to educate the parents and the nurses the consequences of having a decrease red blood cell production in the body of a child.
Question Four
How is iron deficiency anemia managed?
Answer
Children are provided with iron supplements
Children are maintained given proper care with extreme cautions
Parents are advised to monitor the activities of the children
Rationale
This is for the purposes of minimizing iron deficiency leading to the iron deficiency anemia.
Page 1494
Question Five
What are the aims of therapy in sickle cell anemia?
Answer
Preventing the sickling phenomena responsible for other infections
To prevent the medical emergencies of sickle cell crisis
Rationale
The main aim is to ensure that sickle cell anemia does not spread to other places causing more harmful effects.
Chapter 50
Question one
What are the various tracts that are used to describe the urinary tract disorders?
Answers
Bacteriuria – this is the presence of bacteria on the urine
Asymptomatic bacteriruria
Symptomatic Bacteriuria
Recurrent UTI
­Persistent UTI
Febrile UTI
Cystitis
Urethritis
Urosepsis
Rationale
In this case, the nurses are able to know how different people describe the urinary tract disorders.
Page 1530
Question Two
What are the objectives of treating children with UTI?
Answer
For the purposes of eliminating any current infections
Establish the contributing factors to reduce the risks of occurring
For the purposes of preventing systematic spread of the infections
For preventing renal infections
Rationale
The caregivers together with the nurses are eliminated the advantages of managing UTI in time because it can prevent a lot serious ailments and infections.
Page 1533
Question Three
What are the nursing goals for urinary tract obstruction?
Answer
To assists in the diagnosis of the disorder
Help in catering for any problems resulting from the disorder
Identify any cases of urinary tract obstruction
Rationale
            The main aim is to remind the nurses what they are expected to do incase of urinary tract obstruction. Additionally, it helps nurses to establish whether there are any disorders or not.
Page 1535
Question Four
What are the main objectives of managing urinary tract obstruction?
a)      Reducing of urinary protein excretion and infections
b)      Reduction of health care to the child
c)      Prevention of fluid intakes to reduce urinary excretion
d)      Preventing excess urinary discharge
Answer a)
Rationale
            The main purpose of managing urinary tract disorder is to prevent any infections and protein loss through urinary secretion.
Page 1537
Question Five
What age is affected by hymoletic uremic syndrome?
a)      6 – 10 year
b)      5 months – 5 years
c)      Below 5 months
d)      10 years and above
Answer (b)
Rationale
            At this age the immune system is forming therefore, they are prone to acquiring this disease especially if they have any other infections.
Page 1540
Chapter 51
Question One
If pupils are fixed for more than five minutes of unconsciousness, it means that.
a)      There is an infection
b)      The child is well
c)      There are signs of brain damage
d)      The child lacks fluids in the body
Answer (c)
Rationale
            This means that the brain is not functioning. The eyes are expected to be in motion if the brain is working properly.
Question Two
What is the importance of having nursing care for an unconscious child?
a)      Record any information including changes or activities that might occur
b)      Change the child clothes and other personal effects
c)      Diagnose the child of any ailments
d)      Ensure the child does not harm him or herself

Answer (a)
Rationale
            The main purpose of the nurse is to record any changes that are occurring when a child is unconscious for the aim of providing the doctors with proper information for diagnosis.
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Question Three
What care should be provided to parents who have lost a child after along time of coma?
a)      Therapy and counseling
b)      Should be treated for the same ailments as the child
c)      The should be told to go home
d)      They should be given measures for preventing future outcomes
Answer (a)
Rationale
             In most cases, parents are left with a lot of shock after suffering all this time when the child was sick until death. Often, parents suffer from emotional disorder. There counseling and therapy treatment should be offered to parents.
Page 1562
Question Four
What are the purposes of neurological examination?
a)      Help establish the causes of various diseases
b)      Evaluate the extent of brain damage
c)      Ensure prevention of disorders
d)      Establish basic neurological information
Answer (d)
Rationale
            This ensures that the child historical neurological information is collected for the purposes of proper diagnosis
Page 1553
Question Five
What is the purpose of the ventricular puncture?
a)      Preventing infections
b)      Reducing the chances of getting brain disorders
c)      To remove CSF to eliminate pressure
d)      To kill any unwanted bacteria
Answer (c)
Rationale

This is often done to help the child release the unexpected pressure.

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