According to ACMQ & Varkey (2010), Chronic Care Model and Patient-Centered Medical Home (P-CMH) are currently among the few prominent healthcare models in use. Chronic Care Model is a model which provides care for people whose conditions require continuous self-management as well as interaction with appropriate health care system. This health care model is applicable to systems and patients experiencing various chronic illnesses (Abrams et al, 2009). On the other hand, the P-CMH model is a care which focuses on providing comprehensive primary care for all age groups, children, youth, and adults.
Differences between the two Models
Chronic Care Model focuses on self-management. Here, the patients are encouraged to fully participate in the provision and improvement of their own health care. This means patient reports to the health care providers about the progress of the treatment. On the other hand, P-CMH model is patient centered and the patient’s personal physician arranges at all stages of life the health care needs of the patient (PCPCC, 2007). Considering Chronic care model, each patient is assigned a health care team, which looks after them regularly (Barr et al, 2003). On the contrary, in P-CMH model, each patient has access to a personal physician, who takes care of the ongoing, initial, as well as comprehensive care. In this model, the physician directs the team responsible for the comprehensive care of the patient (IBM Global Services, 2009).
Similarities between the two Models
Both models focus on the provision of high quality care which is culturally sensitive and can easily be understood by the patients. Both models provide an additional source through which information is shared between patients and clinicians to facilitate care and receive meaningful feedback from the patient about health progress and status. Involvement of the community is valued in both models. Chronic Care Model aims at mobilizing community resources to meet the patient’s need, while the aim of the P-CMH model is to ensure that the health care system is integrated with the patient’s community (ACMQ & Varkey, 2010).
Elements of the Models Significant for Achieving Quality and Safety Goals
Nadzam (2009) notes that communication is one of the most important pillars in the provision of health care. Well coordinated communication as utilized in the two models ensures that every step undertaken in health care is well coordinated (Tufano, 2009). Second, in both models, decision is made based on scientific evidence, whilst putting into account the patient preferences (Shortell et al, 2010). Registries and information technology are also used in both the models to ensure that all patients receive the predetermined quality and safe care(Shumaker et al, 2009). In P-CMH, the principle of quality and safety ensures that practices support attainment of patient-centered results (Rakel & Rakel, 2011). The patients are considered the most important in the model and must, therefore, be accorded high quality and safe treatment. In Chronic Care Model, quality healthcare is attained through open encouragement, handling of errors, and quality concerns (Lubkin, 2012).
Structuring the Models to Achieve Best Medical Outcome at the Lowest Cost
Cunningham & Oswaks (2009) argue that the models should be structured to embrace prevention of chronic diseases and better management for patients, who are already suffering from chronic illnesses. The system should also focus on record keeping with the aim of reducing waste by effectively eliminating duplicate tests (Chaippelli et al, 2012). The models should adopt capitation reimbursement to encourage physicians to be well informed on the utilization of healthcare resources as well as the cost of the same resources (Barkley & Mash, 2006). The models should also abandon the fee-for-service model for payment and adopt capitation payment model. The physician and the hospital will be paid for a specific task carried out, applying to this model. It rewards the healthcare providers for achieving expected quality outcomes.
For better provision of healthcare to patients, the models should have a high level of accountability except responsibility for cost as well as quality of care, which they provide to a defined number of patients.