Neurology uses different methods to investigate various elements. This paper discusses some of the research questions that scholars have researched on in the area of neurology and the results they reported in their researches.

Cognitive Neuroscience Methods

Rugg, M. D. & Yonelinas, A. P. (2003). Human Recognition Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. ScienceDirect, 7(7): 313–319.

This article sought to determine the relationship between cognitive processes and the human recognition memory using cognitive neuroscience based methods. The study also sought to establish how the processes affect the human memory. The researchers established that there was a strong relationship between cognitive processes and the human memory. The findings of the research were that cognitive processes in human beings support recognition memories of familiarity and recollection. However, the researchers noted a difference in the speed of how each process operates and level of specificity of information retrieval

Single Cell Recording

Ludvig, N., Potter, E. & Fox, S. (1994). Simultaneous Single-Cell Recording and Microdialysis within the Same Brain Site in Freely Behaving Rats: A Novel Neurobiological Method. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 55(1) 31–40.

In this research the method of single cell recording was used to investigate the behavior of hippocampal theta cells and complex-spike cells in rats and the neurons firing in dialysis site. The researchers were also investigating on a method that can be used to perform intracerebral micro dialysis in rats. The results of this study were that different types of neurons displayed normal electrical activity when micro dialysis fluid contained artificial cerebrospinal fluid only. The other finding was that changes were observed when the micro dialysis contained appropriate amount of fluid. Consequently, a conclusion was made that neural activities in the brain controlled the overall behavior of a person including the ability to learn.


Liu, J. S., White, H & Paul F. (1996). Electroencephalogram Bispectral Analysis Predicts the Depth of Midazolam%u2010induced Sedation.Electroencephalogram Bispectral Analysis Predicts the Depth, 84(1) 123-130.

This research was aiming at evaluating the accuracy of different EEG constraints that can be used to assess the induced sedation of midazolam during regional anesthesia. The researchers concluded that different parameter of EEP performed differently when given to the same patient indicating a wide difference on the kind of effects that the sedative had. Further results indicated that EEG-BI type was the most useful constraint when it comes to assessing the effects of induced midazolam sedation and could provide a prediction of the chances that a patient was going to positively respond to verbal gestures during the session of applying the induced sedation.

Event–Related Potential

Cunnington, R., Windischberger, C., Deecke, L & Moser, E. (2002). The Preparation and Execution of Self-Initiated and Externally-Triggered Movement: A Study of Event-Related fMRI.  Journal ofNeuroImage, 15(2) 373–385.

This study sought to examine the internal and external spatial location and relative timing of activation for self-initiated with the use of rapid event-related functional MRI. The research revealed that activation within the basal ganglia was self-initiated, while externally triggered movements included more bilateral activation of primary auditory cortex. The researcher concluded that even though the levels of activation in cingulated cortex did not indicate any significant difference, the timing was important for self-initiated activation as compared to the externally initiated movements. As such, there was a clear suggestion that pre-SMA was involved in the initial processes linked with self-initiated movements.

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Boroojerdi, B., Foltys, H & Krings, T.  Localization of the Motor Hand Area Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.Clinical Neurophysiology, 110(4): 699–704.

The researchers of this study sought to identify the hand knob by using functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques to establish whether the hand knob corresponds to the hand area of the motor cortex. This factor has been identified by frameless MRI-based neuronavigation system known as transcranial magnetic stimulation. The researchers found out that the activated pre-central site in the functional magnetic resonance imaging indicated that muscles lay within the predicted anatomical area, and therefore the so-called hand knob had the structure that implied two subjects.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Antonio P & Toma, P. (2000).Modulation of Cortical Excitability during Action Observation: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study. Neuroreport Motor Systems, 11(10): 2289-2292

This study investigated the question of how stimulation of left primary motor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation affects the movement of arms. The researchers recorded motor evoked potentials starting with the first dorsal intereosseous and biceps muscles. The results of the study indicated that paired-pulse stimulation facilitated the movement of MEP amplitude by evoking the single test stimulus and reducing the intracortical inhibition. The researchers noted that the changes were specific a particular muscle that is involved.


Salmelin, R., Kiesila, P & Uutela, K. (2004). Impaired visual word processing in dyslexia revealed with magnetoencephalography. Annals of Neurology, 40(2): 157–162.

The researchers of this study investigated how magnetoencephalography could help to reveal word processing impairment in the condition of dyslexia. They determined that phonological impairment was a result of abnormal activation of the left temporal and temporoparietal cortex.  The result of this study indicated that phonological impairment had correlation with the magnetoencephalography even though differences existed in the left interior temporo-occipital region where intracranial recordings were identified as responsible for word processing. In the case of dyslexia, this area failed to activate in entirety thus leading to a slow response.


This paper has presented the research questions and the results of various investigations in the area of neurology. The researches that have been used herein were done by professionals in this area and therefore the results of their research are reliable.

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