Neuropsychiatric Disorders

General background

The prevalence of cardio-metabolic syndrome (CMS) is increasing worldwide with many studies indicating higher prevalence of the syndrome among people of the African origin. According to national cholesterol education program expert panel of UK on detection, evaluation and treatment of mental related disorders, ethnic alienations influence the prevalence of cardio metabolic syndrome. Mendelso notes that the highest prevalence of cardio metabolic syndrome is recorded in Mexico for both genders while African and American women have higher incidences than their men counterparts. Aaron and Brad predicted the value of increased body mass because it can be used to ascertain the development of cardio metabolic risks.

CMS has many symptoms but the most common and adverse characteristics of CMS are physical and biochemical abnormalities which increases the risks of an individual to contact cardiovascular ailments, diabetes mellitus and other related diseases as highlighted by Yudofsky and Hale in 2002. The antipodal distinction between the brain and the mind which identifies them as two separate entities has complicated the identification of the illness that affects the brain and the mind. This mind-brain monism has been adopted as opposed to mind-brain dualism because mentality is believed to be biological which has formed a common research work for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

 Problem statement

Despite numerous studies that have done to the effort of establishing the association of mental disorders and the risks that accompany them, no concrete conclusion has been reached to clear the controversies that surround the relationship between the causes of mental disorders and the risks involved. This research paper is therefore concerned about finding a conclusion to the said controversies that surround causes and effects of mental disorders with a great reference to depression as an effect of mental disorders.


There have been differences in the research concerning the prevalence of neuropsychiatric disorders with the biological cause being the main focal point as noted by Berrios and Markova in 2002.  Price, Adams and Coyle agree that mental disorders are not only caused by brain constituents and genetics but also factors outside the skin of an individual. This is true because many diseases that affect human beings are caused by internal factors, external or a combination of the two factors. Mental disorders are no exception and with the distinction between the mind and brain the causing factors of the metal disorders are said to veridical.


Martin notes that the previous researches have shown that cardio metallic metabolism is associated with functions of the mind and neuropsychiatric disorders. Oestrogen has been indicated as a major factor in maturation and functioning of many parts of the brain and other neurochemical systems involved in neuropsychiatric disorders.  Oestrogen usually affects the microstructure of brain regions that support the cognitive functions. Kendler in his 2002 article claims that mental disorders are wholly responsible for all risks that lead to development of mental related ailments such as depression. However, Bell, Halligan and Ellis, 2006 contradict this by noting that mental illnesses can be a result of many other reasons especially fatal accidents and drug abuse.

Epidemiological evidence has been documented to the effect of pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Homocysteine acid has been implicated as a risk factor in some of the evident neuropsychiatric disorders discussed below:

a) Stoke

 Ferenczi indicate that Homocysteine is an independent risk factor in most ailments that come with stoke with a summary odd ratio of 2:0 increment in plasma Homocysteine. Thus, there is good epidemiological evidence that suggest that Homocysteine is a significant risk factor for stoke.

b) Cognitive impairment

The evidence that planted Homocysteine as a significant risk factor for cognitive functioning is still controversial. An initial study in 2001 by Green indicated that Homocysteine contributed to approximately nine per cent difference in mental performance of adults. However a consequent study indicated that there was no association between Homocysteine and cognitive impairment and failure. Another study indicated that there was an association between Homocysteine and cognitive impairement but the former caused no decline to cognitive development.

c) Depression

The relationship between Homocysteine and depression has not been fully documented. However, the available literature show some evidence that Homocysteine status dictates the rate of depression on an individual and how antidepressants will perform on the individual. Other studies have indicated that Homocysteine may play a crucial role in elevated rates and cardiovascular mortality in depression.

d) Alcoholism

Brain atrophy that has been reported in many alcoholics may be related to high levels of Homocysteine. Though alcohol is not a source of Homocysteine acid, it reacts with the acid to increase body and blood pressure which may result to mental disorders.


Depression is a felling that occurs to everyone especially when stressed or sad as documented by Kaye in 2005. Kendler notes that depression is a condition that interferes with daily life and normal function of the individual. Depression just like other ailments needs medical attention for the victims to get better although many individuals never get any medication causing the disorder to be recurrent. While many people with depressive related illness do not seek medical advice, there has been a notable extensive research that has resulted to development of therapies and medications to treat people diagnosed with depressive disorders.

Forms of depression

Depression has many forms but the most common and frequent types of depression that are believed to be caused by mental disorders include:

a)  Major depression

This is a combination of main depression symptoms and can fully interfere with the normal function of an individual such as working, sleeping, eating, and learning among other related functionalities. This form of depression may occur once in a life time or recur if an individual is subjected to too much brain work and stress. Koch and Laurent agree that the main cause of major depression is mental disturbance and can lead to severe mental risks.

b)  Dysthymic disorder

Lerner and Whitehouse say that Dysthymic depression is a long term but has lesser severe symptoms that can’t prevent a person from doing the normal bodily functioning but usually causes the individual to be less active. Similarly, this kind of depression is risk result of mental disorders.

c) Psychotic depression

Psychotic depression is a severe depressive illness accompanied by hallucination and break from the real world and requires immediate attention because it can cause brain malfunctioning. Linden claims that this type of depression is the most dangerous and can lead to complete mental failure.

Symptoms of depression

Depression occurs in co-existence with other illnesses that precede it, cause it or be a consequence of depression.  Thus depression has many signs and symptoms that may be stand alone or caused by other related illnesses. Some of these symptoms include:

a)  Prevalence of sad, hopeless and empty feelings

b)  Loss of interest in treasured activities

c)  Decreased body energy resulting to fatigue

d)  Thought of suicide and suicidal attempts

e) Troubled thinking patterns because depression affects the memory and the way people think  about themselves

Causes of depression

Marr, 2003 argues that there is no one established cause of depression but a combination of environmental, genetic and psychological factors are believed to cause or trigger the causes of depression. Mayberg , 1997 noted that many  depressive disorders are caused by the disturbance of the brain functions especially on the parts of the brain that control moods, feelings, thinking and normal body functions. Genetically, many depression disorders are believed to run through family lines though it can affect individuals with no history of depression disorders, Price 2000. Robertson states that the genetic link in causing depression disorders down the line is triggered by multiple genes that act together with other factors believed to cause depression such as psychological factors.

 Depression in women

In 2006, Ross wrote that depression is much prevalence in women than in men because of their psychological, life cycle and biological differences with men. He further indicated that, women usually get depression after birth when hormonal and physical changes coupled with the added responsibility of the newborns. Additionally, women get stress from their places of work, house hold duties, caring for their children, spouses and parents and other factors such as relationship strains, abuse and poverty

 Depression in men

Both Sabshin and Sachdev agree that depression is less effective to men that it is in women. Many neuropsychiatric specialists have revealed that men have different ways of experiencing depression and similarly have different ways of coping with the disorders. However, just like women, men experience fatigue, loss of interest and motivation among other symptoms of depression.  Contrastingly, men turn to alcohol when depressed or become irritable, frustrated, discouraged and some extend very abusive.

Diagnosis and treatment of depression

Saxena, 1998 claims that irrespective of its degree of prevalence, depression is a treatable illness. Just like other disorders, the earlier the disorder is intervened the better to treat it and prevent future occurrence of the same or related disorder. Schiffer et al. state that oonce a victim visits a medical centre for medication; the doctor usually conducts physical examinations, interviews and lab tests. If nothing is diagnosed at this stage, the doctor can conduct a psychological evaluation or refer the individual to a mental health specialist. The specialist usually focus on depression because it the core result of many mental disorders  and conducts an interview to establish the family history in relation to depression so as to get the historical symptoms of the depressive disorder. Once a person is diagnosed with depression, medication is prescribed, psychotherapy applied or Electroconvulsive therapy if the first two fails.


 Antidepressants have been used to normalize the activities of the brain by cooling the two common neurotransmitters; serotonin and norepinephrine, Shapiro et al 2001. However, antidepressants have been criticized because they have side effects to individuals who continually use them especially causing short term mildness on the body.


 A talk-therapy has been very successfully to counter depressive disorders. Shergill notes that regimens range from 10 to 20 weeks depending on the degree of disorder and the needs of the individual. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) have been successfully applied in treating depression. CBT teaches affected individuals new ways of thinking and behavior thus help individuals change from behavior that has been a cause of their depressive states and adopt positive thinking and behavioral methods. IPT is usually tailored towards addressing depression caused by relation conflicts and it advocates for understanding and working through troubled relationships

Electroconvulsive therapy

As Uher and Treasure write in their 2005 article, Electroconvulsive therapy is an intervention for depression that is only applied where both medication and psychotherapy have failed. This is a more physical treatment and patients are put under anesthesia for their body to relax. However, this method has some known side effects such as confusion and memory loss.

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