The article is examining the links between nonviolent and violent trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptom clusters of avoidance, re-experiencing, and hyper arousal, as well as self-reported physical health signs in women who are post abused. The problem is compelling because it is a problem that is globally known to exist. The problem is clearly stated in the government request for proposal. The problem being researched on causes a lot of pain and suffering to the affected women. The problem being studied does not sell personal issues but rather addresses public issue. The research is backed by data which is organized to demonstrate that the problem exists. Further the study has reviewed the literature to prove the existence of the problem as well as the importance of conducting the research to address this problem. Hence, it is correct to say that the problem is compelling and thus should be approved for further study.

The independent variables employed in the study are trauma which could either be violent or nonviolent, physical abuse as a child/adult, sexual abuse as an adult/child, serious mugging, and witness to murder or mutilation. On the other hand, dependent variables include the physical health symptoms. The variables are clearly stated to enable the reader to deduct the results of the study. The research question was relevant to the study. This is because it states the variables being tested as well as the method to be used to get the results. All the variables are explicit. They are self explanatory to the reader and thus able to infer the meaning of the research. The variables are consistent with the research problem as they are looking at the relationship between trauma among others causes and the physical health symptoms similarly to the research question.

The study carried out a sufficient literature review as many sources were sought for comparison and to reinforce the suitability of this research. The literature was also relevant to the current study as the material addresses the issues related to abused women and trauma they go through. Most of the literature reviewed is not current since there is even a 1989 review included. Most of it is old. Current review would be start from around 2000 and over, but this study has not consulted much of this current literature, just a few. The sources of this literature are reliable. This is because; the study has used primary and scholarly sources such as books and journals. In deed, most sources are from academic journals which are very good sources for such a study. The reviewed literature is credible and raises the confidence of the results. Also the proposal for such study may be accepted quickly because the review is convincing. The way the literature is reviewed improves the credibility of the study because the sources can be evaluated since they are properly cited as well as being referenced properly.

The conceptual framework in this research involves the basic factors that may lead to health related symptoms. There are also other underlying factors which may lead to the same outcome. The conceptual framework relates well to the problem and variables. The sample size for the study included fifty post abused women between 19 to 63 years of age. The sample was collected from different races as long as the post abused woman met the inclusion criteria. Their mean age was 37.28 years. The inclusion criteria required that the women be from a battering relationship for the last one year prior the study. The sampling procedure was proper and coercion was adequately prevented by organizing and following the inclusion criteria.

The research design used in this study was retrospective, descriptive-correlational research. The design was appropriate for the study because the study involves explaining and describing the present health symptoms by using many subjects that include 50 post abused women who have been used to fully describe the phenomenon. In addition, the design is appropriate as it attempts to explore the relationship between nonviolent and violent trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptom clusters of avoidance, re-experiencing, and hyper arousal, as well as self-reported physical health signs in women who are post abused. The relationships are then used to make predictions. The design made use of questionnaires that were filled. The design uses one set of subjects with more than two variables for each. Thus this research design was the most appropriate for the study.

The instruments used to conduct the research were valid and reliable as has been revealed by the literature reviewed. Campbell and his colleagues found the Index of Spouse Abuse a reliable and valid instrument. The statistical procedure employed the use of mean SCL-PTSD score to get the correlation. The alpha was stated and it was not too stringent for the study. The results of the study revealed a correlation between the duration of abuse and the physical health. This clearly indicated that the more a woman remained in that abusive relationship, the more the physical symptoms. A mean of 1.25/ SD-.95 was found ranging from .04 to 3.43 on a scale of 4. p values of each DV were provided. Some results were consistent whereas some were inconsistent with the previous findings. The conceptual framework relates adequately with the results. The confounding variables such as the independent variables were accounted for. These findings have implication for assessment. The author’s discussion of implications for nursing practice was consistent with the strengths of the study. Lastly, the results have value for nursing practice since they highlight the requirement for health care practitioners in all settings in order to assess for a history of trauma in a woman’s life.

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