Principles of Biomedical Ethics

The definition of ethics is this are just working guidelines or principles that govern the working of the people to the level of influencing negative attributes. But, we can be able to ask ourselves of the reasons that makes a question an ethical question or a statement an ethical statement. This has to be defined by the peoples understanding or cultures and believe of what is deemed right for them as well as wrong for them. These ethical issues are designed to expose the policies that in one way or another favors the hospital administrators, health policy makers, or other powerful people and seeks to understand the moral scrutiny when rendered to all parties.

In the no feeding policies, there are likely to be contra indication and the choice of whether to breast fed the child. This is determined by a variety of conflicting cultural attitudes, misinformation’s and more aptly, the structural constraints. For instance, in the United States, most people prefer not to breast feed their children as they find this practice disgusting. It has in several occasions lead to the harassment of the nursing mothers by the hospital personnel’s. It has also as well raised concerns of the legal controversies about the openness and the permissibility of the breast feeding the children especially in the public places. Quite a big group of people believe that the mothers who feed the infant formula to their babies are very irresponsible. This has resulted in the feeling of guilt by the formula feeding mothers.  For both the mother and the child, it has as well also been noted that much of the misinformation starts from the health care professionals. This is as it has been pointed out by the American Academy of the pediatrics (2005).   All this counteracts the beliefs and the scientific understanding that breast feeding is one of the best.  The American Medical association has developed a list of the medical requirements that are supposed to be observed and that are not contraindications to breast feeding

Non-ethical Considerations

Medical’s can only apply to the extent where the cultural attitudes are unsupportive. In some instances, there are as well the women who do not have the time to breast feed their children and neither can they pump the milk for the later use.  The current focus of democracy dictates that women choices as well need s to be respected. On the contrary opinion, what measures are needed in case the mother’s choice is harmful to the child? And in the same manner, what can happen in case the choices are specifically as a result of the mis-information and the structural barriers? ‘It is our moral obligation to provide the mothers with the proper information to avoid the probability of them making wrong choices’ (Beauchamp and  Childress, 2009). But when it comes to the extreme case, then the legal application will within the focus of application. One will also need to understand all the factors that may influence and as well limit the choice that they can be able to make.

When the non ethical considerations are left unattended and them due to the mis information and the structural structures lead to a situation that may put the child at risk becomes an ethical issues.

Utilitarian thinking

The utilitarian thinking is an application of the utilitarian theory that basically looks at the pros and the cons of a decision that will determine which direction to be selected that is of the greatest good. It places more emphasis on the final action. In most cases, this comes as an application of the relevant principles of ethics such as the beneficence which is approved to promote goof of others. The non-maleficience principle asserts one avoiding the risk of causing harm to others and finally autonomy in which people are allowed to express their right to self determination especially in this case which involves the postpartum cases. It as well covers he right for privacy and respect to information. This is mostly guided by the good feeling associated with the decisions that may be the happiness, the associated pleasure and finally the health value. The predicted consequences are that the baby in most of the time will suffer the consequences due to the preference of the mother to her feelings and emotions. This in most cases may lead to legal action for the mother especially if the situation may compromise the health and the safety of the infant. The best action in this is to provide advice to the mother by giving her the options that cut across to support the pros and the cons of the consequences of doing one and avoiding the other. This will provide the mother with the satisfaction for the good feelings and as well be able to bear with the bad feelings of unhappiness, disvalue and displeasure.

Deontological thinking

Deontological thinking is the application of the deontological theory in making the decision in matters of postpartum care. This help to determine what is right by the application of the ethical guidelines and the moral principles. However, in all cases, live is very sacred and must be maintained in all situations. On the other hand, the application of this theory in strict, may not consider the quality of life. Depending with the culture of the people, they will always work according to their cultural understanding. The scientific consideration in most cases is always in conflict with the ethical standards. A good example is the take on the sanctity of life in abortions. This calls for the beneficence when the good must be done, the nonmaleficence which are characterized by the ethicist’s who strictly do not consider causing harm and in as a much as the advisory duty is in existence, her autonomy to make a decision is unfathomable. In most cases, a mother will never put her own priorities above her own.

Decision and selection of course of action

In some cases the decision may be made by appointed persons who make a decision on behave of the patient. These will be a case involving the mother and the child. But in all cases, the decision must be made in favor of all. The person may be a close relative or the decision as well can be made by the doctors or health professional depending with the occasion of the occurrence. But the overall perspective is always to save the life. It may become a problem when the person making decision has special interest in the mother and the baby. Therefore the decision make need to be honest, trustworthy and of sound mind to avoid biases in the decision.

Contribution of External Factors

Medical issues can of great conflict with ethical principle which may set a great debate on the rights that may need to be granted.  Institutional factors may be able to affect this outcome in one way or another depending with the affiliation of the mother. ‘If she is very busy as usual that she may never have time to care efficiently for their baby’ (Rosenthal, 2006, p.373). In some cases where the mother is mis advised by the medical professionals are another effect and in the process, this may lead to legal actions. This is more so when the stated decision risks the life of the baby and the decision has been deliberately been determined by the mother or the medical professionals. Some social factors that may influence the decision of the mother more especially if it the one concern the lifestyle of the mother and ignorance which may be very dangerous to the baby.

Quality of Decision and Course of Action

The decision being made in this context is to work within the ethics that will protect the mother and the infant who must be able to secure the lives of the persons involved. The course of action is to secure the lives of the two and more if it is with the autonomy of the mother’s decision. Then she should act in the interest of the baby. Deciding not to feed the baby with breast milk is morally right if the mother is seek and breast feeding will cause and risk the life of the baby. But it will be morally wrong if the mother disagrees to feed the baby basing on her own flimsy reasons or with intentions of giving the baby substances that will affect the infants.  Yes, the no formula postpartum care unit is implementable but there must be legitimate reasons on why they need not be done by the mother. This must be within the ethical guidelines. This decision must be adhered to and this must be confirmed to be within the working guide line of the postpartum care of the infant.

Reflection on Decision

The decision that was made by the mother was not worked upon because the baby needs to be breast fed in order to develop and sustain its body immune system which can only be generated by breastfeeding, a totally no formula indicates that the baby gets the mothers breast milk 100% and in case of diseases then it cannot be implemented. This will also work with long term infections such as diabetes, HIV, cancer and other long term ailments. The decision made accomplished the intended purpose because it was meant to protect the baby and the mother as well.  This decision was morally right because it intended in maintaining the quality of life which is the only justice that needed to be done.

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