Psychotic disorders

Type of Schizophrenia

Description

Symptoms

Causes

Treatment/prevention

Paranoid-type schizophrenia

This type of schizophrenia is distinguished by illusions and auditory hallucinations.

The delusions and auditory hallucinations are the main symptoms. People with this type of schizophrenia may believe that other people are intentionally cheating, harassing or poisoning them or even spying on them. Other symptoms include periods of anger, remoteness, anxiety and argumentativeness (Kurtz, 2005).

All the types of schizophrenia result from a combination of genetic and environmental elements such as environment, substance abuse and prenatal (Green, 2006).

Patients need support from family and friends while urging them to look for medical help from professionals.

Disorganized-type schizophrenia

This type is distinguished by speech and actions that are muddled or difficult to comprehend.

Sometimes the patient’s normal functioning is weakened and experiences difficulties in performing normal activities such as washing or bathing. The patient experiences emotional impairment as well as communication problem (Kurtz, 2005). The person has problems in composing sentences. The patient’s communication ability is affected and the person has literary inexplicable speech as a result of disorganized thinking patterns.

Genetic and environmental factors

This type of schizophrenia is normally linked with early onset that is being widespread between the ages of 15 and 25 years. It is thus said to have a poor prognosis as a result of rapid growth of negative symptoms and a decrease in social functioning. This condition is treated through the application of electroconvulsive therapy (Green, 2006).

Catatonic-type schizophrenia

This type is signified by disturbances of movement.

The most significant symptom is movement imbalances such as catatonic enthusiasm such as hyper activity or catatonic stupor also referred to as reduction in performance of activity. Other movement imbalances associated with this condition include carrying out the same task continually which mainly results from having nothing in specific to do (Kurtz, 2005). Another symptom that may be seen is immobility or resistance to variations in appearance. The victim might opt to remain still and decide to stay in the same position as placed by other people. Although the patients may be showing signs of discomfort in staying in the same position for long durations of time, they will resist to any attempts to change them into other positions. The victims may voluntary resort to abnormal limb movements or facial impressions or body postures. Therefore the condition may be confused with tardive dyskinesia which is another condition having the same symptoms (Kurtz, 2005). It can also be confused with Tourette’s Syndrome as at times the patient might develop the habit of replicating what has been heard or aping other people’s body movements.

Genetic and environmental factors

Catatonic schizophrenia is a chronic serious condition which requires the patient to be subjected to lifetime treatment program even in periods when the patients shows no symptoms and in fact feels better. Although the patient may feel that he no longer requires the treatment, it is always wise to continue the treatment. The treatment of catatonic schizophrenia is led by a psychiatrist and is composed of a group of people who include the primary care doctor, psychiatrist, psychotherapist and a pharmacist. Other members of the team include a case worker, psychiatric nurse and the family members of the patient. The treatment options include medications, Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), psychotherapy and hospitalization. Some of the drugs used in the treatment include the benzodiazepines and antidepressants.

Undifferentiated-type schizophrenia

This type of schizophrenia shows the symptoms of all the other types but not comprehensive enough to be distinguished as any of them.

This is the type of schizophrenia that does not fall into any of the other categories and is diagnosed when schizophrenia does not show symptoms similar to those of all the other types of schizophrenia.

Genetic and environmental factors

Since this type of schizophrenia is regarded as a mixed clinical condition, the treatment plan is similar to the one used in the catatonic schizophrenia and is led by a psychiatrist who heads the treatment team (Green, 2006).

Residual-type schizophrenia

This type is characterized by at least a previous episode of schizophrenia

This type of schizophrenia is characterized by traces of behaviors such as idiosyncratic behaviors, delusions or hallucinations which are still exhibited by a person although not as severe as when the person had the condition (Kurtz, 2005). Similar to the varying types of schizophrenia, the outcomes of this condition are highly varying too. Some of the other noticeable symptoms of this condition include fat effect characterized by immobile facial appearance and repetitive voice, lack of enjoyment in the day-to-day activities, reduced capacity to initiate and sustain planned activity and speaking infrequently even in situations when compelled to interact. Different varieties of impairments affect various groups of people in various ways. While some people will require custodial care, other patients may have a relatively normal life characterized by normal families and careers. While patients will not stand at the extreme sides, they often have to result to waning and waxing treatments characterized by hospital visits and other external support services. Improved outcome is recorded when the patients particularly the women  have had a larger functioning capacity before the illness or when the severest episodes were short followed by the victims return to normal. In all case of schizophrenia it has been observed that the patients with normal brain structures healed better and faster than the others (Beck, 2004). Conversely, a weaker prognosis is characterized by disturbing and steady inception beginning from teenage years or childhood. These result to abnormalities in the brain constitution which can be shown by imaging studies normally resulting to permanent damages after severe incidents (Beck, 2004).

Genetic and environmental factors

Follows the same treatment plan as that used in the catatonic type.

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