Historical quality data management in the health care is traceable to the peak of the second decade of the 20th century, that is between the year 1918 to 1923.The health care production qualities and the controlling ideas and the many more concepts that were used to determine the standards of the data were developed in Japan towards the end of the 1940s and 1950s and this was pioneered by the triangle recourses of Feigeburn, Demin and Juran who were of American origin. Quality data management in the health care did result from the works of the quality gurus and the theories which they developed.. Beyond these inventions by the Americans the Japanese Gurus took it up and grew it up by the model of development and extension of the early American data quality ideas and the mechanisms (Kitchen, 1997).
The Japanese gurus were the Ishikawa kaoru. Genichi Taguchi, together with Shigeo shingo.After the Japanese their emerged two American western gurus who notably were Philip Crosby and Tom peters to further take the health care data quality management to the more advanced levels. The many of the comparative analysis which have been done so far are able to show that China, Japan, South Korea, Sweden and the United States, in regards to the national approaches have predominantly positioned themselves in line of the Continuous Improvement on the health care data Schools of Thought on the quality and standards in management.
The final perspectives have described the holistic data quality history has the extension of the dual path framework in terms of the relevant empirical evidence, knowledge and various perspectives on the varied data quality management.
One of the most significant ventures of the performance improvement in the health care was the introduction and development of the standards of performance technology and the code of ethics in1990.The two were introduced to the performance improvement community at the ISPs annual conference These standards serve now as the basis of the selection amid the development of performance improvement professionals all over the globe The ISPs was chattered for the aim of being able to reveal the condition of the performance technology in terms of the .definitions ,directions, models and the methodologies in the health care (Kitchen, 1997).
Risk management was introduced in 1992 in the health care due to a series of the high profile frauds and accounting scandal by the corporates.As a result the London stock exchange did introduce new regulations which were covering corporate governance on the various perspective such as who had the chance of becoming the CEO,what committees the board should be having and the steps which they should be undertaking to make sure that organizations accounts would be reliable and assets are safeguarded. The rules were based on the Cadburys committee’s code of best practice concerning all the financial documents and was practiced on the London health sector.
For the sake of surviving the companies got their senior executives together in workshops and they did identify these risks and thought on their way out as they tried to meet the requirements. The results gotten out of the workshops were written down and called "risk registers" or "risk maps”. and the workshops started to be called "risk management
This is the processes that were developed in the healthcare for the assurance of the proper usages and for the right jobs of the equipments and tools. Drucker,(1998).
The utilization had to be relative to the costs and the possibility of replacing if it has been damaged.
APPROACHES TO THE REGULATION OF HEALTHCARE QUALITY
There are three main approaches to quality regulation in the health care sector. that the governing bodies and the professional affiliates relay on to ensure that they are able to maintain as well as improve the quality of the health care. These includes: licensing, certification, and accreditation.
These approaches have distinct purposes behind them and are able to
Give their verdicts towards country’s general strategy to the ensuring quality of healthcare services.
This refers to the statutory means by which a governmental authorities use to award permission to an individual practitioner or corporations as well as the partnered institutes to allow them to engage in an occupation or to give the mandate to the healthcare organization to undertake operations and deliver services. The Licensing of these allows governments to take the responsibility of ensuring that the basic public health and safety is attained by actual control of the entrance by the healthcare providers and facilities into the country’s healthcare market and by establishing standards of conduct Licensing is different for the other approaches in that it’s a mandatory for any of the healthcare provider to have it before commencement of operations. And it’s given by a centralized party that ensures all the requirements are met before it’s issued. The. Licensing regulations on the other hand do specify the time duration for which the license shall be valid and operational plus the procedures of the maintenance and the renewal formalities of the licenses. Licenses are often renewable by the payment of the sect oral fees and finances as requested or by the submission of documentation thereof.
This is the process through which a authority that is recognizable by the government is given the responsibility of evaluating and checking that individuals or organizations are really adhering to the pre-determined criterion of the healthcare operations (Lippincott, 1999).
Capabilities in fastidious areas.
The healthcare certification providers have what it takes to recognize an individual practitioner has demonstrated certain special skills and knowledge in a specific line. The Certification by and large do implies a specialization in a technical field.
Accreditation refers to the formal process by which the assessment and recognition that a healthcare organization does meet the pre-established routine standards is done by a recognized governmental or non governmental body.
The process has attracted great interest over the past years as a all-inclusive approach meant for the improving and maintaining of the healthcare quality.
Accreditation is different from the other quality regulation forms in that it main focus is usually on optimal or desirable healthcares trends and goals. To some extend it does go more than minimum ratings of health care and do have the strongest of the performance improvement point of reference which stimulates the healthcare organizations go along the higher levels of quality beyond the minimum needed for licensing. Accreditation is a participatory approach not the “top-down” process from the recognized governmental units.
There are very strong relationships between quality and health care in that the two are symbiotically related such that they benefit from each other. The health sector does relay on the quality of standards to be able to avail the services the clients do expect and in return do tend to give future business. Quality is measured in the health sector by the effects it creates to the overall organization ratings, if the rates do show that the particular establishment does have the quality it deserves then the relation ships of the health care and are built and strengthened. Risk is definable as the uncertainty effect on the organizational objectives. According to Mentzer, (2001)The risks may be either positive or harmful. Risks in most cases do come from the financial markets being uncertain, the credits risks natural disasters and their causes, accidents, as well as a deliberate attack from an antagonist.
Risk management on the other hand is termed as the process of doing the identification, and the assessment required to particular risks and their prioritization before the application of the organizational resources to bring them down and their monitoring to ensure there is control of the probabilities or the impacts of the future unfortunate happenings. This can also be done for the sake of the maximization of the company’s resources opportunities.