Human physiology deals with the science of physical, mechanical, biochemical and bioelectrical functions of a healthy human body, organs and cells. This study focuses more on the organs and systems as well as all kinds of malfunctions that could occur, creating a variance in the normal body anatomy and physiology. In addition, scientists have unveiled that most human physiological aspects are very closely related to the corresponding animal ones. Moreover, many studies in the animal physiology have helped to accumulate the knowledge on human physiology via the animal experiments guiding into discovery of the treatment procedures. Both human and animal bodies depend on senses and the endocrine system in order to react appropriately to the surrounding environment. The endocrine system, however, tends to serve more in the internal environment by secreting the relevant hormones to deal with different situations (American Medical Association, 2010).
Anatomy, on the other hand, focuses on the form of these organs and cells. Anatomy and physiology go hand in hand intrinsically tied in all medical curriculums. This paper centres on two human organs, the eye and the ear. Particularly, it describes what happens to people who suffer from the eye cataract and the variance it represents comparing to the normal anatomy and physiology. Moreover, this paper researches the sensorineural hearing loss and the physiological facts causing the condition.
A cataract is a clouding white substance that usually develops in the crystalline lens or the lens capsule of the eye. This clouding varies in degrees of intensity from a slight speck to a complete opacity causing the substance to block the light from passing through. On the early stages of the cataract development especially for the elderly people the clouding raises the chances of the progress of the short sightedness among the patients. Furthermore, with time, opacification coupled with the yellowing of the cataract may also impair the perception of the blue color. If left untreated, cataracts slowly cause the loss of vision and eventually the complete blindness. Normally, the problem affects both eyes of the person but one eye could be more affected than the other one.
Although in most situations cataract is associated with aging, there are other situations where it affects even the young people and children. For instance, secondary cataracts can occur after an eye surgery for other problems. Some other health conditions like diabetes also cause cataracts. Physical eye injuries may as well result in the eye cataracts with time. Consequently, these cataracts are referred to as traumatic ones. On the other hand, the congenital cataracts occur among the prenatal babies later born with the condition, or it develops early in their childhood. Though the congenital cataracts in most cases are mild, it affect both eyes (Chen et. al, 2000). In addition, the exposure to some sorts of radiations could also cause the radiation cataracts.
Generally, cataract may affect an eye of a patient by forming clumps of proteins which reduce the image sharpness being implanted in the retina. A human crystalline lens is formed of water and proteins, and is transparent to enable the light rays to be refracted to the retina (Eye Care Associates of Eastern Texas, 2010). However, clumping of the proteins diminish the transparency of the lens, what makes the patient see blurred objects all the time. The patient may not notice a cataract by vision at first but its gradual growth eventually brings a big difference in the sense of sight. Also scientists have seen cataracts behaving differently when the crystalline lens of the patient starts to change into a brownish or yellowish color, what gives the patient a tint in their vision. Particularly, this coloring tends to cause color blindness first when patients confuse the blue and purple while the level of vision still is being rather good. However, the gradual increase of the coloring results in the change of the images sharpness too leading to the blindness if not treated in time (Klein et. al, 2006).
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Considering the next aspect of the research, sensorineural hearing loss is a loss of hearing specifically caused by vestibulocochlear nerve otherwise referred to as the eighth cranial nerve failing or other problems with central processing regions of the brain. Sensorineural hearing loss could vary from the mild to total deafness. In most cases, this hearing loss is caused by the hair cell abnormalities in the organ of corti located in the cochlea. The poor hair cell functioning that leads to sensorineural hearing loss may be acquired at birth or just damaged in the course of a life of an individual. The external causes of such damage include infection and exposure to loud noises especially at work places that traumatize the ears (Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, 2010). However, scientists have also unveiled the defenses genes in some of the patients which imply that they had inherited the condition from their parents.
Sensorineural hearing loss resulting from the central auditory system abnormalities in the brain may also be referred to as central hearing impairment (Sergi et. al, 2006). However, the brain is formed in such a way that the auditory pathways cross each other back and forth in each side of it that makes it very rare and unusual to have deafness caused by central auditory system.
Generally, a long-term exposure to noise is the root cause of sensorineural hearing loss. The source of noise could be a workplace or a residential place situated near a busy airport or noisy industrial area. For other instance, a playing loud music in your headphones could eventually result in this hearing problem. Some diseases like measles and meningitis, among other, may also damage the auditory nerve or the centers where sound is processed in the brain. It is this simple damage that makes individuals unable to process sounds in their brain hence making them deaf. According to Weber test, a turning fork which is normally touched at the foreheads midline moves to the normal ear to make the individual have sensorineural hearing loss. The Rinne test, on the other hand, shows that air conduction versus the bone conduction is normal but both have a generally reduced conductivity (Haynes et. al, 2009).
The malfunction of human basic senses may influence the level of the life of a person starting from the slightest discomfort and ending by major harm, for example, the total deafness or blindness as studied in our case. The changes in the quality of the functioning processes of a body senses results from the physical aspects that have been affected.