Abstract

The paper investigates sleeping disorders as one of the most wide-spread diseases of the modern civilization. Sleeping disorders may be divided into dyssomnia, parasomnia, and the violations of sleep caused by the other diseases. The disease has a negative influence on human life as the reduction of the quality of sleep also reduces the activity of a person at daytime and decreases the ability to concentrate on the everyday tasks. Sleeping disorders may be treated and prevented with the help of healthy way of life. A person, who suffers from the disease should minimize stress, to follow a balanced diet, and create the schedule of sleep.

Discussion

Sleep is an important compound of life. Normally, people spend one-third of their lives sleeping. However, in the progressive era of human development, it is necessary for people to spend more time awake. Very often, people decide to satisfy the need by shortening the period of sleep. However, it is necessary to take into consideration that the lack of sleep may cause damage to physical and mental health. At the same time, the variety of sleeping disorders does not allow an individual to satisfy the need for rest. The paper investigates sleeping disorders and the possible consequences of the lack of sleep.

 
 

Sleep is the physiological process that consists of the inhibition of the nervous centers that takes place in accordance to biologically determined individual rhythm. It is the functional condition of brain and the entire organism of human beings and animals. The state of the central nervous system during sleep differs from the condition of wakefulness. The major characteristic is the inhibition of active cooperation of the organism with the environment and a partial break in the conscious psychological activity.

The stimulation for homeostatic sleep is the psychological process directed to the reception of sleep necessary for maintenance of the activity level needed for the period of wakefulness. The process is active during the night; however, it also functions at daytime as the need for sleep increases during the day. If a person did not have sufficient rest on the previous night, the desire to sleep at daytime will increase. Therefore, the balance between active daytime and restful nighttime is a requirement for effective functioning.

Sleeping disorder is the condition when a person has difficulties falling asleep, the sleep is short and abrupted, and there is no feeling of relaxation after waking up. The quality of sleep becomes lower, and the ratio of different phases of sleeping has imbalance. The sleeping disorders include dyssomnia, parasomnia, the violations of sleep related to the other diseases. Moreover, the disorder group of dyssomnias consists of insomnia and hypersomnia.

Insomnia is the sleeping disorder that is characterized by the inability to fall asleep after a long period at night. The individuals, who suffer from insomnia, are unable to close the eyes for more than several minutes, and cannot find the comfortable position for falling asleep. The condition contributes to the dissatisfaction with the quality of night rest. Insomnia is one of the most frequent patient complaints because they do not have a feeling of the restoration, despite having sufficient time and good conditions for sleeping. The sleeping disorder causes the decrease in the active quality and the daily activity. The reasons for insomnia are stress, psychological diseases, somatic illnesses, alcohol consumption, toxic factors, brain diseases, pain phenomena, and outer conditions such as noise, the change in time zones, absence of sleep schedule, the violation of sleep hygiene, and other factors. Therefore, the numerous preconditions of insomnia make it the prevailing sleep disorder.

Hypersomnia is a significant increase in the duration of sleep, usually accompanied by daytime sleepiness. The main features of hypersomnia include the night sleep duration for more than 10 hours, continuous daytime sleepiness, and lack of significant restfulness after a nap. The diagnosis of hypersomnia requires clinical data, test results, and polysomnography. Psychophysiological hypersomnia may occur after a long-term lack of sleep, physical and mental fatigue, stress. The development of hypersomnia may be associated with taking certain medications, such as antipsychotics, tranquilizers, antihistamines, antidiabetic, and antihypertensive means. The treatment of hypersomnia requires a person to establish the schedule for sleep. The patient should exclude working in the evening and night shifts. In addition, he or she has to choose the same time for going to bed every night and include one or two naps during daytime. The desirable length of the night sleep should not exceed 9 hours. The sleep hygiene results in improvement of rest-active schedule. Moreover, the patient should avoid alcohol and heavy meals before bedtime.

Parasomnia is a destructive sleeping disorder, which can occur during the phase of waking up. Parasomnias include nightmares, night fears, and sleepwalking. Nightmares are the vivid dreams, which can cause a feeling of fear, terror, and/or anxiety. Usually, after having a nightmare, people can describe the dream in detail. Moreover, it is very difficult to fall asleep again. The causes of nightmares are different; they range from illness, anxiety, loss of a spouse, to a negative reaction to medications. If nightmares persist more than once a week, the patient needs to consult a doctor to discover the problem. In the treatment of parasomnias, the most important factor is the differential diagnosis of the causes, and the possible identification of the epileptic nature of the phenomenon. If parasomnias do not violate social adaptation, the patients do not need special treatment. However, the therapeutic attention to excessive occurrence of parasomnias is advisable.

The treatment and prevention of sleeping disorders includes pharmacotherapy and non-pharmacological methods. The first treatment factor is establishing a regular schedule of sleeping. The patient should set a fixed schedule of going to bed and waking up. The alarm should be set up for the same time every morning without considering the time of rest. The second recommendation is to approach daytime naps carefully. If a person decides to sleep during the day, it is necessary to be consistent. Otherwise, the naps can violate the night rest schedule. Third method to resolve sleeping issues is to avoid taking alcohol and caffeine. The consumption of drinks before sleeping may force a person to wake up early next morning. Avoiding eating before going to bed is a helpful technique, as the digestive system needs several hours to finish the work. Finally, regular exercises help to sleep better, but it is necessary to avoid stressful training.

Sleep is the physiological process that has different qualities that the period of wakefulness. The activities of the central nervous system, the somatic sphere, the cooperation of the organism with the environment change their patterns during sleep. The normal duration of sleep is from four twelve hours, and it depends on age and physical conditions. Sleeping disorders occur when the sleep disturbance affects the performance or causes excessive fatigue. Sleeping disorders are divided into dyssomnias, parasomnias, and the disorders caused by the other diseases. The preconditions for sleeping disorders create a chain of risk factors and human error in sleep planning. In the treatment of insomnias and parasomnias, it is important to understand the cause and eliminate it without medical intrusion. If the behavioral approach does not improve the situation, the medical involvement becomes valid. Pharmacotherapy (medicines and homeopathic remedies) and non-pharmacological treatment (psychotherapy and acupuncture.) are the alternatives to regain sleep patterns. In order to maintain healthy sleep and prevent sleeping disorders, it is necessary to follow a number of rules of fixed schedule, relaxing, and calming before going to bed.

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