Models for the promotion of evidence-based findings in clinical practice serve as blueprints guiding nurses as to how evidence can actually be applied in practice. When models are available, nurses can easily use these as resources in translating their organizational and personal aims of incorporating EBP in patient care into concrete action (Reavy & Tavernier, 2008). Thus, models help organizations and nurses achieve their goals with regard to EBP. The model can also be elevated into a theory of EBP utilization once sufficient empirical evidence is obtained, through its application in a variety of clinical settings and nursing phenomena, showing that the model is able to explain and predict all phenomena involving the use of EBP in clinical settings. Employing a tried-and-tested model means that nurses have a high likelihood of success in utilizing research evidence. They can further use the model as a standard in the application of research-based evidence.
The Stetler Model is one such framework. It describes the process of integrating evidence into practice as consisting of five phases, namely preparation, validation, decision making, application and evaluation (Romp & Kiehl, 2009). Because it was formulated for broad application, it can be translated into various clinical settings including nursing staff development, bereavement care, screening for risk factors for postpartum depression, nursing administration, oncology nursing, anxiety recognition among Parkinson’s disease patients, effect of humor among cancer patients, infection control and responsibility diffusion in pressure ulcer development among others. Broad application means that using the model gives nurses the capability to use research evidence effectively and efficiently in all areas of their work.