Infertility is a term that describes the inability of an individual to make a meaningful contribution to the conception process.  Mostly the term describes conditions of a woman who is unable to carry pregnancy for the required time frame of nine months full term or a man who is unable to make contribution to conception process. However, the term has been used different in the medical field by different parties to describe situations of either a woman or a man’s inability in the conception process. It’s either the inability to conceive after 12 months of sexual intercourse in presence of contraceptive free environment. Infertility can be either primary or secondary; primary infertility refers to a permanent condition that the couple has never been in a position to conceive even once while secondary infertility refers to difficulties in conceiving again after initial conception or carrying a pregnancy for the full nine months term or results to a miscarriage (Charles and Karen 45).

The infertility phenomenon has been greatly attributed to an economy’s level of growth and development. It is estimated that, one out of seven women experience infertility especially in the less developed economies. Infertility is a problem that has also been associated with age factor with increased age proportional to the chances of infertility. Infertility can be a situation of either the woman, man or both with Adeno – associated virus responsible for infertility in men (Diana 23).  

Causes of infertility

In the recent past, the world has experienced several technological advances and the impossibilities have been done in the technology world. These efforts have been able to postpone death and prolong life besides birth control and alterations of major human configurations including before birth. In the last four decades, childless couples got an opportunity to have children through technology. However, several types of infertility are evident in both male and female. Unexplained infertility refers to conditions of a woman’s inability to carry pregnancy for whatever reason that has not been explained by research resulting to a condition known as idiopathic infertility or ‘unknown cause’ (Jacqueline 93).

Infertility in Males

Some research has attributed these conditions to tubal flushings that occurs in a female accompanied by water soluble media that occur in a contrasting mode. Male infertility is the other common form of infertility disorder identified in men. This condition is experienced due to difficulties in sperm production system in the testes. This occurs when production process is slow and when it takes place, weak sperms are produced and they do not work properly to cause fertilization. Some major causes of sperm production disturbance may be infections in the productive system like mumps, undescended testis, and torsion varicocele, presence of antibiotics in the sperm, influence of drugs, radiation and heat damage (Leon and Marc 67).

Sperm blockage is another major cause of infertility in men. This causes absence of sperms in the ejaculated semen due to obstruction in the tubes that leads sperms away from testes. This is also categorized as another major cause of male infertile from sperm production problem. This problem is also accompanied by hormonal imbalances due to failure of pituitary gland responsible for testes sperm production. When the right message is not communicated, low levels of testosterone are experienced resulting to low of no sperm production. It is associated with three in every twenty infertile men which includes those men that experienced earlier vasectomy (Kevin 102).

Fertilization also becomes impossible in presence of sperm antibiotics which lessens the movement of sperms due to egg binding therefore preventing fertilization process. Males also experience difficulties with ejaculation as a result of sexual intercourse challenges including erection difficulties. To avoid and prevent these problems, excessive heat as a result of tight under wares should be avoided, excess cigarette and drug taking should be curtailed and vaginal lubricants should also be avoided (Health Care.net, n pg).

Infertility in Females

Infertility is also associated with females mostly caused by ovulation disorders. When a woman does not have a normal monthly ovulation or experiences abnormal ovulation, infertility becomes a great challenge in such kind of situations. Besides this, when there is blockage in the fallopian tube, fertilization becomes difficult. This may be caused by pelvic inflammatory related diseases or even endometriosis. Other causes of women infertility includes aging factor, defects and congenital anomalies that involves destruction of uterine fibroids and uterus associated with frequent miscarriages (Diana 24).

Ovulation failure is the greatest cause of female infertility. Mostly ovulation fails when hypothalamus fails to secrete the releasing hormone – gonadotropin responsible for stimulating the pituitary gland tasked with production of hormone that activates ovulation. When a woman experiences high levels of hyperprolactinemia- responsible for stimulating milk production, chances of failed ovulation are high resulting to infertility. Ovulation can also be caused by excessive exercises, obesity, weight loss, adrenal gland malfunctioning, polycystic ovary syndrome, psychologic depression or stress and menopause (Leon and Marc 16).

Conclusion

Infertility has been identified as the inability to conceive and maintain pregnancy for the normal full period. This may be caused by a variety of factors which includes problems with sperm production, abnormal hormonal levels, psychological stress and depression as well as fallopian tube complications. Major infertility in men is associated with oligospermia and azoospermia as opposed to genetic factors and diseases like `the case of women. In females, complications in ovulation are the major causes of infertility besides blockage of fallopian tubes and inability of uterus to hold the fertilized egg. Frequent and repeated miscarriages are also responsible for infertility since they destroy the uterus walls where the fertilized egg is implanted. To diagnose infertility, females undergo basal body temperature measure for a period of time to identify ovulation disorders while sperm examination and count is carried in men.

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