Africa In order to answer this question it is very necessary to understand the meaning of the word Apartheid (2004) first. The word Apartheid has been understood by 11th Collegiate Dictionary (2004) as;
‘Racial segregation: former policy of segregation and political and economic discrimination against non-European groups in the Republic of South Africa’
This is the idea that was developed during the administrative period of John F. Kennedy. To look into the role played by John F. Kennedy during 1961-63, the legal and the political proceedings should be well speculated. As the President of the United States, John F. Kennedy was well known for his systematic persuasions and appropriate decisions. In his Inaugural Address delivered on 20th January, 1961, President Kennedy, declared;
“Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of liberty….struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself.”
The issues related to the abolition of apartheid in South Africa too became integral to this decision. As a matter of fact, the discriminatory acts through apartheid have been of great concern to all the Presidents of the US and J. F. Kennedy was no exception. It was under his dominance and administrative persuasion that UN General Assembly decided and further condemned apartheid in South Africa. As stated in Foreign Relations of the United States, 1961-1963, it was under the initiation of President John F. Kennedy that the U.S. came forward with various strategic tools and materials to help South Africa fight against apartheid. It was under his administration that there were remarkable promotions in the Commodities Policy that supported the process of opposing apartheid to a great extent. His interest in dealing with the apartheid in South Africa has been highlighted in many books, journals and electronic publication. However this paper in particular is trying to discover John F. Kennedy’s stand against apartheid.
The approach has been based on all kinds of primary sources. All the primary sources are based on the declarations made by J. F. Kennedy and various legislative persuasions in this field. The data are all collected and analyzed on the basis of authentic declaration made the President himself or by his office. The specified primary sources are basically from Presidential libraries, National Archives II, Maryland (NARA), Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) document collections, Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS), Presidential Papers, Department of State Bulletin, United States Treaties and Other International Agreements(UST), UN resolutions, Congressional hearings and Newspapers.
Apartheid in South Africa
The practices related to racial segregation in South Africa was established during colonial times. During those days the invaders use to suppress the population of South Africa under various discriminatory activities. This practice continued even after the removal of colonialism. As a result there was the development of apartheid that was considered under official policy and legal proceedings during the session before the general election of the year 1948 in South Africa. According to the new legislative declarations the inhabitants of South Africa were categorized into four racial groups; identified on the basis of the color of their sin. These groups were comprised of people with black skin as against the white skin, and the colored with the Indian. Added to this all the residential areas were further segregated by means of forced removals. From the year of 1958, all the people with Black complexions were deprived of the portfolio of citizenship. This was not the end, the government even segregated education, medical care and attentions and all kinds of other public services.
The government provided black people with all those services that were inferior in quality than those that were provided to the Whites. This led to significant internal resistance among the native population. Toonari (2003) elaborates it in reference to the freedom rides of 1961 that begins from Washington, D.C. In these rides, groups of black along with people ride many buses through South, in order to challenge segregation. These internal resistances led to a series of popular uprisings. All the uprisings were made against the political banning led over the Blocks and against the imprisoning of all the anti-apartheid leaders. There was a continuation of social and political unrest in South Africa and it spread on wider peripheries with violent consequences. The social and political unrest of South Africa was well felt by UN and there were proceedings led in terms of dealing with these violent consequences. US being an integral part of UN were much affected by these uprisings. The political concerns of South Africa were also affecting the social segments of US, as its population too has got most of the Black population.
Kennedy’s Administration from 1961-63
The 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy got into the White House with the motive to bring in some of the effective revolutionary movements in the social order of human civilization. With the power in hand, Kennedy was inclined to deal with all kinds of social evils and managed to establish appropriate laws for the same. It was his effort to stabilize the progressive nature of the world and to develop all kinds of issues related to national security within the periphery of the United States. Resolution 171: The Palestine Question (9 Apr), further adds that it was he who expanded the dominance of US over the territories of Asia, Latin America and above all into Africa. The approach was followed by abandoning the policy of Eisenhower. The approaches were all positive and were for the socio-economic and political benefits of al these nations. The basic events that took place during the administration of Kennedy were recognized as Bay of Pigs Invasion, followed by Cuban Missile Crisis and African American Civil Rights Movement. In this point it was Schlesinger who makes specific focus on the Kennedy’s Administration of 1000 days; expresses his participation in foreign affairs. The specialized focus was led over the process of providing enough aids to almost all the developing countries. The targets were led for an overall global development and Kennedy took the primary initiations. It was the initiations in the field of declaring the need for Civil rights that Kennedy came up with the anti-apartheid revolution in America, leading it to South Africa. Even with that focus, what emerges is Kennedy's refreshing escape from the conventions of previous politicians (Schlesinger Jr. and Sobel, 2005).
The Kennedy administration was efficient enough to put effective modes of political realism. It was during his election campaign that Kennedy declared his thoughts and support for Civil Rights. Though during 1957, Kennedy was not much in support of it, yet accepted its policies during election campaign. The diplomatic strategies can be counted to get the votes of the ‘Black’ population. He needs to beat Nixon and for that the support of the African origin people was necessary. Whatever were the prepositions, even after being the President of United States; Kennedy kept all his promises and established strong foundation for the persuasion of Civil Rights. Not only that it was during his session that much of the importance were driven towards the development of the Black population in America, leading to the implementation of human rights in South Africa. The rules against discriminations and the ethical proceedings for the fulfillment of the same were much accepted and structured by Kennedy as a President. His participations were vital and South African population thus counted a lot on him.
As a president, Kennedy acted to deal with all the reports forwarded during 1960, about the brutal and illegal instances of discriminations. According to his promise he laid special emphasis over the abolition of discrimination on the basis of the statistical declarations made by the Civil Rights Commission in 1960 (McKay, 1960). The report stated that the affects of discrimination are very pathetic over the African American community in US and is severe in South Africa as a whole. Kennedy administration scrutinized the report and followed measures to deal with;
- all those 57% of African American population under housing, who were judged as unacceptable
- African American life expectancies that was comparatively 7 years lesser than the white population
- African American infant mortality rate that was reported to be twice as of the white infants
- issues where the African Americans never get the chance to mortgages for some economic support
- provisions for all the African American families to stay with their property.
Kennedy was very particular in keeping all his promises. He even did much more than what he declared during his election campaigns. Though the first year moved with slower paces, yet the approaches of Kennedy administration never went dormant. It was actually in the first year of his administration that Kennedy was much involved in his domestic issues of dealing with the provisions to improve health care conditions and to provide better wages for the lowest waged workers. These steps were though in particular was never named as contributions towards the abolition of apartheid, yet were similar persuasion within the nation. The next two years were dedicated towards the overall development of the nation and with enormous participation for the development of South Africa. In his words;
‘We have a right to expect that the Negro community will be responsible, will uphold the law, but they have a right to expect that the law will be fair, that the Constitution will be color blind, as Justice Harlan said at the turn of the century.’
As Kennedy forwards his ideological follow ups in South Africa the movements and the conferences were recognized as anti –apartheid. The regulations and rules against discrimination in America were actually never recognized as anti-apartheid. Since in South Africa the levels of discriminations have been already named as apartheid, the contributions of Kennedy administration the abolition of these discriminatory activities were justified as anti-apartheid.
Africa receives First Supplement
It was marked that the administration of SA tried to break with the legal policies constructed on the ideologies of its predecessors and thereby endorsing all sorts of local nationalism and forwarding political formats to accept cold war neutralism. These approaches were however not well managed under the influence of colonial powers in Africa as a whole. America’s European allies have been detected as the major antagonist factor hindering African nationalism. The status of United States was in a way very critical since it cannot offend its European friends and at the same time cannot ignore the requests made by South Africa. It was amidst a situation where it cannot actually take one side by means of offending the other side. It thus became mandatory for the Kennedy administration to take a middle position.
Herring (1963) forwards the involvement of President Kennedy in the legal affairs of South Africa as a compulsion. His investigatory declarations show that South Africa in particular posed various unique and difficult challenges under the influence of Kennedy administration. As Kennedy was very inclined to help the developing countries, the participation of Africa in regular settlement of conflicts; led by apartheid was very much a part of Kennedy’s concern.
These conflicts were actually got interpreted in the social structure of American life and the issues affected America to a great extend. Kennedy’s participation was to provide friendly support to the country to get out of its traumatic situations. As a matter of fact Kennedy also proved the government of South Africa with the process of reforming their policies and legal structures. The diplomatic persuasion of Kennedy’s administration added ground for managing with the Europeans on the one hand and the government of South Africa on the other. To a great extent America actually identifies itself through the African nationalism. Since most of the population in America is from Africa there is a bond between the two states. The issues of persisting segregationist institutions, added by the voracious racial discriminatory conflicts in the United States related it directly to the issues of Africa. Setting the Stage: January (April 1963) highlights the participation of Kennedy through his comment made on 28th February 1963. Kennedy noted that
"the harmful, wasteful and wrongful results of racial discrimination and segregation still appear in virtually every part of the Nation."
It was ultimately, the participation of Kennedy administration that could build a better formulated political persuasion regarding al these issues. Though Africa was getting much support from Soviet Union, yet it was not of much help. The persuasions led by Soviet Union for attaining independence over the establishment of nationalism and appropriate legal proceedings against South African apartheid; created consciousness in the country. However these supports could not get much hold in terms of dealing with the crisis that actually persists within the country. Ultimately, it is through Kennedy administration that came up with moderate positions and related the issues of Africa to a political nullification and abolition. Kennedy administration supported Africa with various aids and also provided military support in dealing with every serious issue. The good will and the sympathy of Kennedy were established through genuine helps and that made Africa get inclined towards developments in varied levels and domains.
Economic Support to South Africa
The declarations made in FRUS of 1961-63, Vol. IX; indicates the participation of Kennedy’s administration in providing economic support to South Africa. The declarations show that Kennedy administration was well aware of the fact that the conditions of Africa can be developed only if it gets enough support to develop its economic conditions. The reports submitted by President Kennedy ratified the OECD for the United States on March 23 (1961, pp. 212 – 213) there are various commodities and foreign policies adopted by Kennedy administration to forward economic support to South Africa. It is sunder the persuasion of OECD that the government decided that al the commodities that are procured through import will be provided to all the aid recipient countries, especially South Africa.
The approach to reduction in the procurement of third world countries has been planned by Kennedy since 1959. Under the democratic ideological structure, Kennedy forwarded more financial support to these countries. As he became the President this proceedings were brought in to the trade and commerce section of US governance. There was a radical increase in the process of cash payments to all those countries that are counted among the aid recipient countries. South Africa in particular received enough support in this field. The Kennedy administration wanted to make South Africa economically sound. The poverty margins were in such deteriorated state that Kennedy administration decided to take serious actions. The financial supports were never meant for any kind of political promotion or increase in the security support within South Africa. It was directly related to the population and all those people who were under serious discriminatory suppressions. These financial aids were initially fixed as $100 million per year. Apart from that the local developments were also taken care of through costs of products in the regions of Latin America and South Africa.
The Kennedy administration also forwarded the South African population with scopes of dealing with local cost financing. Kennedy administration understood that the problems related local cost financing sector of South Africa are due to the lack of any substantial assistance programs for the purpose of generating local currency in the South African history. The local areas of SA were having high priorities regarding the infrastructural facilities to gain larger local cost component in every sector of local businesses. As there was no counterpart to the local currency, to get used for all business these purposes in the areas of Middle along with Far East; it become mandatory for the local traders to pay out dollars to gain local currency for getting business projects. However, as for the Kennedy administration, the basic concern was related to the prospect of increasing cash transfers to make room for aid recipients, and the local costs related to developmental programs Africa. US government took these kinds of expenditures in itself to maintain and develop Alliance for Progress program within South Africa. It is for the absolute development of South African population that Kennedy administration took these initiatives.
The Kennedy government wanted the South African population to get more opportunity in the establishment of their economic independence. This was made possible by various aides. Apart form that the issues related to health care and the education of the children were of great concern to the Kennedy administration. Since they cannot get into every aspect of South African legislative structure, Kennedy persuaded the establishment of health care and education through the eminent leaders of South Africa. In a way he made them realize the importance of these two aspects along with the right for equality. As a whole Kennedy’s effort through personal and administrative persuasions were directly or indirectly helping South African population to build a very strong identity.
J. F. Kennedy’s Influence over South Africa
It has been detected that various attempts related to the implementation of civil rights; led by Kennedy, helped in getting sympathetic response from various liberals, especially those liberals who were from North. A tremendous political boost to this civil movement was marked in November 1960, when there was the election for the Democrat John F. Kennedy to the position for presidency. As Kennedy narrowly won over Richard Nixon, there was rejoice marked in the persuasion of anti-discriminatory practices. For the people of America, the idealism of the new president encouraged the spirit towards the development of civil rights. Most of the students from the northern part of Africa, believed that under the leadership of Kennedy, they will get the scope fro transforming society against apartheid system. This spirit travelled fast to the Southern part that was already involved in the struggle for the establishment of civil rights.
Kennedy well realized that in making attempts to stop war against apartheid and persuasions of civil rights, the South Africa earned very deteriorated and horrible conditions. There were innumerable instances of viciousness. The role played by Kennedy as a president in such kinds of situations were vey vital. Kennedy could build up a friendly relationship with Martin Luther King Jr. As a matter of fact it has Kennedy’s persuasions that released King early from the jail. This relationship was so strong that King always cared all the suggestions offered by Kennedy.
Kennedy’s ideologies regarding apartheid were much sorted in the political periphery of South Africa. Greenberg (2001) states that in response to various allegations about Martin Luther King, Jr. being a communist, has been actually handled well by Kennedy. It was in the Kennedy administration that the judiciary agreed to allow Federal Bureau of Investigation in the matters to wiretap private individuals, that was inclusive of Martin Luther King, Jr. it was Kennedy who with his influence provided enough support to King and provided him with a better socio-political image. King; as a matter of fact owed a lot to Kennedy and considered his ideologies as positive and for the benefit of South Africa. Kennedy’s approaches regarding the regulations against apartheid were much scrutinized under the influence of King and that supported the state to come up with some hope for a settled social equality. The report elaborated by Standard-Times Washington Bureau, state that the conference members of South Africa wanted to let President Kennedy know about their government policies. As stated by them;
"presumably to tell him what it wants the Government's African policies to be. At such a meeting, there will be the implied threat of Negro votes against the administration if the blueprint drafted at the conference is not followed…"
The research led over the Presidency Projects, forwarded by Woolley and Peters adds further reports that state that it was South African population that wanted President Kennedy to forward a helping hand in dealing with the issues of discriminations and especially apartheid. These researches elaborate about all those letters that are sent to Kennedy for his involvement in the political and social structure of South Africa. In most cases President Kennedy gets invited for all the important conferences through humble requests. Though he cannot be in every conference but always extended his participations and good wishes, as in;
I want to extend to you and to the delegates to the Monrovia Conference the best wishes of the Government and the people of the United States for the success of your conference.
There are certain statements made by Kennedy, as a reply to all these requests. These statements are like;
‘As you seek to achieve the dignity and freedom of the human individual and the rights of men, we share your desire that these objectives may be realized and safeguarded for men everywhere.’
‘It gives me great pleasure on this occasion to send my personal greetings to the conference of chiefs of state of this Union. I have watched with interest the development of your organization and its contribution to the goal of increased African economic and political development. May I extend my best wishes for continued progress.’
Involvement of Kennedy in the social and political matters of South Africa developed a balanced structure. There are several cases that were handled by the administration of Kennedy and various levels of settlements were done within South Africa. As for instance, in September, 1962; that the Mississippi Governor, Ross Barnett very much defied an order led by the federal court and deliberately integrated the University of Mississippi. He personally barred black student named James Meredith in the campus from getting admitted. In opposition to this act Meredith forcefully registered, and there was severe rioting erupted within the University campus.
The legal and political leaders failed to handle the situation, it was then that Kennedy got involved in the case. To get the situation under control, President Kennedy assisted South Africa with federal troops. These troops were spread all over those areas that were beyond control. These force were very much compliance with the pre-determined laws of South Africa. The troops dealt with the massive riot that actually erupted between the angry whites and the blacks in the campus (The Vernon Johns Society, 1994). It was reported by New York Times 2 Oct. 1962 that at the least three people were killed in the riot and several were wounded. The riot turned so violent that the seriousness of the case forced the president to take a step forward and to federalize the Mississippi National Guard.
After that he declared an order to the state regarding the process of settlement and integration. Eventually in October, Meredith was allowed to attend his classes and the entire case came under absolute control. In order to bring the issue under control more than 200 people were arrested. These were the people who basically encouraged many other riots followed by the original one. To bring everything to an end, President Kennedy forcibly barred religious along with racial discrimination in South Africa. He federally funded the proceedings of housing and made it obvious that there will be no outrageous issue about religious and racial discriminations.
Speech on Civil Rights
The speech delivered by Kennedy, about Civil Rights is a milestone in the history of human rights. As broadcast in television on the 6th of June, 1963, President Kennedy made a recurrent urge to the entire nation and the peripheries under its socio-political dominance, to take serious action for guaranteeing absolute and appropriate equal treatment for every particular American. These treatments were specified for anti-discriminatory approaches towards every single race. Kennedy’s speech was collected from every practical walk of life. There is no exaggeration or unnecessary motivational propaganda. It is through this speech that Kennedy proposed the procedures for the establishment of civil rights in the legislation. The fundamental and core issues were related to voting rights, general rights in public accommodations, absolute school desegregation, appropriate nondiscrimination application in politically assisted programs, and many declarations of similar kinds.
This transformation was actually led by President John F. Kennedy. He is the one who introduced this bill in his civil rights speech, delivered during 11th June 1963. In this speech Kennedy said,
"I am, therefore, asking the Congress to enact legislation giving all Americans the right to be served in facilities which are open to the public--hotels, restaurants, theatres, retail stores, and similar establishments.
This seems to me to be an elementary right. Its denial is an arbitrary indignity that no American in 1963 should have to endure, but many do."
For Kennedy the establishment of equal rights is an ‘elementary right’. He was very particular about the implementations of the laws regarding abolition of discrimination as a whole. It was his approach that made the issues of discriminations gets legal concern. The approach was to deal with the status of apartheid and equality for every single person. In this approach Kennedy sent a bill for the recommendation of Congress on 19th of June. This was a bill that was more towards the persuasion of some law that can emulate the Civil Rights Act established in 1875. The specialty of Kennedy's civil rights bill was much inclusive of provisions made for the purpose to ban discrimination. This ban of discrimination was especially meant for public accommodations. The establishment of equal grounds for people from North and South were the core purpose of providing Civil Rights in the state. In the words of Kennedy;
My fellow Americans, this is a problem which faces us all--in every city of the North as well as the South. Today there are Negroes unemployed, two or three times as many compared to whites, inadequate in education, moving into the large cities, unable to find work, young people particularly out of work without hope, denied equal rights, denied the opportunity to eat at a restaurant or lunch counter or go to a movie theater, denied the right to a decent education, denied almost today the right to attend a State university even though qualified. It seems to me that these are matters which concern us all, not merely Presidents or Congressmen or Governors, but every citizen of the United States.
In this declaration Kennedy was much clear about the levels of discriminations that actual persists in the Americal society. In reference to the Northern and the Southern part of population, Kennedy tried to evaluate the mode of independence actually enjoyed by the African-Americal population. He declared equality in every possible field of human rights. These were very much inclusive of educations, legal and socio-political peripheries. Added to which was the enabling power of the U.S. Attorney General to make provisions for lawsuits against all the state governments that are into the operating process of segregated school systems. As declared by Civil Rights During the Kennedy Administration, 1961-1963; the following points were considered in the process of sampling the ultimate documents. These were in fact followed for further developments of reports and legally scrutinized papers. The points were;
However it can be noted from Civil Rights Bill Passes in the House (Feb, 1964), that this bill was not much about protection against any kind of police brutality or the law for ending social discrimination within private employment system. The speech made by Kennedy made provisions for Justice Department to implement power regarding all kinds of discriminations led in the job market. It was declared that the judiciary can take appropriate measures to handle any issue on job discrimination in the both governmental and corporate levels. It can also pass sentences against any case related to desegregation lawsuits. Buffalo Journal of Gender, (1992-2009) discovers that tthough there were many aspects that actually restricted Kennedy from participating fully in the South African movement; yet his declarations regarding the implementation of Civil Rights added much support to all the anti-apartheid movements in South Africa.
The basic points that needs to get noted here is the issue of apartheid as marked by Kennedy administration. The issue was initiated with all these points and in particular in reference to issued dealt for discriminations, civil rights, protecting freedom and racial unrest.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
The establishment of Civil Rights in 1964 is closely related to John F Kennedy. Though he is not manually associated with the implementation of civil rights issues, yet was the soul to the construction of the entire law. His administration was more involved in the issues related to Cuban Missile Crisis added by conflicts related to Cold War, but his participation in structuring the basic format of civil rights cannot be ignored. Though there is actually no noticeable civil rights legislation, signed by Kennedy, yet the US government always owes for his initiations. His input in the history of Civil Rights has been still well acknowledged by entire world. Though its declarations were posthumous to Kennedy’s administration, still enough of it has been dedicated to the ideologies of Kennedy. It was Kennedy who actually pressurized federal government to employ more and more African Americans into the employment jurisdiction of America’s equivalent postures of Britain’s Civil Service.
The matters that were related to lower wages and corporate promotions were basically treated under equal scale during the administration of Kennedy. Kennedy may not sign and legislative document regarding Civil Rights but has contributed enough in practical implementation of the same. It was under his supervision that FBI alone employed 48 employees from the community of African Americans. Though this selection was done under the pressure of Kennedy, FBI appointed all these people chauffeurs. They could not compromise with the social discriminating structure, but were also compelled to follow the instructions mad by the President. Kennedy has done more than any other US leader in promoting anti-discriminatory activities in America. His influences over South Africa helped in the expansion of Civil Rights even after his death. He always encouraged appointment of more African Americans, in the jurisdiction of posts meant for federal government. With his administrative power, Kennedy managed to appoint 40 Senior Federal Positions with 5 federal judges from Africa American community. This step added enough support to the anti-apartheid movements in South Africa and the people could very easily presume that it is only Kennedy who can establish balanced Civil Rights in America, followed by South Africa.
The participation of John F. Kennedy can be well marked through the declarations of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Public Law, 88-352, 1964). This particular law is still considered as a great landmark in the legislature of the United States. As it has been developed for the purpose of extending voting rights and to deal with the process to outlaw racial segregation; it has a tremendous impact over the social lives. These discriminatory aspects were dealt within the school campuses, in the workplaces and all those places that are meant for general public or the areas under public accommodations. Kennedy though could not participate in the establishment of Civil Rights, yet id the core processor in making it a compulsion to the social set up. The results were much realized on posthumous basis, where the legislature accepted the contribution of Kennedy in this follow up. It is noteworthy to consider that to this proposal, the Congress took active participation in the follow ups. The speech was so strong that despite the assassination of Kennedy in Nov., 1963; all the recommendations made in his proposal were very much culminated in the establishment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It was further signed as a static law by President Lyndon Johnson in 2nd July, 1964.
Under the influence of the points led by Kennedy, this act outlawed the entire segregation in the field of businesses. The domains were inclusive of restaurants, theaters, public places and hotels. It came up with an absolute ban against every discriminatory practice within corporate and employment programs. Eventually it ended the entire formulation of segregation in al the possible public places, including libraries, swimming pools and all the public schools.
The investigations made over all the primary sources show that participation of John F. Kennedy into the abolition of apartheid was never considered as the something noted specifically. However his approaches were all related to the persuasion of all kinds of discriminations that actually persists in the society. His initiations were not restricted to apartheid in particular but for all those circumstances that lead to mental solitude under social pressure. The administration of Kennedy was more into the establishment of equality on global basis. His persuasions were remarkable in the establishment voting rights, non-racial treatments in the public accommodations, establishment of school desegregation, acts of non-discrimination in all the federally assisted political programs, and lots of such domains. These are all related to the persuasion of anti-apartheid proceedings in reference to the social and political instability of South Africa.
It has been well understood that the participation of President Kennedy in legal and political proceedings of South Africa, helped the country in coping up with its major discriminatory issues. His negotiating nature was an added advancement towards the establishment of his motives. He never left any stone unturned to provide justice to every individual. The scenario of South Africa has been much transformed on the basis of establishing human rights. The discriminations led from the stage of Martin Luther King Jr. to the student named Meredith; Kennedy provided enough support and sense of security to the population of South Africa, during his administration. Kennedy’s administration forwarded South Africa with enormous political and legal supports for the settlement of issues related to apartheid.
Kennedy administration drew as thin line in the premises of South Africa. He was very popular by 1963. The reasons for the popularity have been marked by his participation in the anti-apartheid movements. Though he no more could get a well defined supportive margin from the whites, yet he emerged as a global leader. To a great extent he was losing confidence from his fellow politicians. The powerful positions of the Democrats were even under severe controversy due to some of the decisions led by Kennedy. However for Kennedy to provide a dedicated service was more important than any political propaganda. He was honored and esteemed by the entire political structure and population of South Africa.
Added to this the entire population still consider him as an ideal global leader who almost revolutionized the issues related to apartheid and provided South Africa with various supportive measures to fight against it. John Whiteclay Chambers II stated that there were many flaws in Kennedy administration, yet what makes him still so special is his contribution the field of developing legal anti-apartheid formulations in South Africa. On ethical and moral grounds the world will remain grateful to Kennedy for his genuine participation in the fight against discrimination and making all possible provision for the development of South Africa, during his presidency. It was the route decided by John F. Kennedy that helped the other presidents to maintain a better relationship with South Africa for the establishment of Unity, Equality and Fraternity.