The French system of government is composed of centralized system with a half-presidential system, called 'rationalized parlementarism'. The Head of the State is also the president who occupies office through elections directly after every 5 years, and he is the appointing authority for a prime minister who must be from the party with majority members in parliament. The parliament comprises of both the Senate and the National Assembly.
Legislation in French structure: France is ruled by a rather stringent hierarchy of principles. The general principle is the national constitution that states a series of rights. In this constitution, the house is the one that passes the legislative statutes, with an internal protocol/hierarchy, institutional, and ordinary acts ordinance. The executive wing retains the privilege to enact regulations referred to as décrets (President of the Republic and Prime Minister) and arrêtés (for the remaining executive) (Dadomo and Farran 45)
The Court System: Their judicial system is divided in two independent and autonomous bodies being: judiciary or ordinary and administrative laws. Judiciary courts are responsible for handling civil, trade, labor and criminal laws. A Supreme Court of Appeals also exists. There are eighty (80) judges appointed by the President of the Republic. The Constitutional Council is responsible for the constitutional review of the statutes prior enactment and of the control of national elections.
French Parliament:It is normally known as the French Bicameral Parliament and has the Senate segregated into several representative portions from locals to French abroad, inclusive of territories. Members of the senate are indirectly elected by an electoral college (John, Sophie and Simon 24).
STRUCTURE OF THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT
The USA has a federal system of government that is decentralized into various political, legislative, territorial and administrative compartments all uniform in structure. The central government in the US is the federal government which is a constituted by the US Constitution, which distributes sovereignty over all the constituent components. It is legally and generally referred constitutionally as the United States of America. The headquarters of the federal government is housed in the District of Columbia (Goldstein 56).
The congress is the legislature body of the federal government in the structural arrangement. It includes the senate and also the House of representative composing of has 435 members all eligible to vote. Each represents in the congressional region and stays for a two-year term. The house seats are allocated according to populace while the senator seats are not prepared and allocated by population; rather each state gets two hence100 senators for the 50 states each of whom serve a six-year period (Winston 82).
Each chamber is given powers to set and define their program of activities and proceedings. It is from this provision that congressional committees are created, its also responsible for the investigation of matters touching on national interests. The 108th Congress (2003-2005) composed of numerous committees with specific reasons in the House of Representatives while the senate composes of 17 such committees with technical mandate, including printing, taxation matters and the overall economic growth and prosperity. In addition, there may be special commissions and units constituted by either of the houses with specific task as spelt out in the constitution. Currently much of the congressional duties are the responsibility of the subcommittees and several commissions (Richard 122).
Powers of the Congress:The Constitution of the USA gives the Congress several powers as in the constitution, these embrace the powers to toll and collect taxes; to currency money and standardize its value; offer retribution for counterfeiting; institute post offices and roads infrastructures, sponsor improvement of science by issuing copyright and patents, craft federal courts lower to the Supreme Court, describe and chastise piracies and felonies, pronounce war, elevate and prop up armies, grant and sustain a navy, formulate rules for the instruction of land and naval forces, supplies for arm, and regulation of the mercenaries, apply exclusive legislation in the region of Columbia, and to construct laws indispensable to appropriately implement these powers (John 27)
Congressional oversight:Congressional oversight is anticipated to thwart waste and hoaxes, guard civil freedom and individual constitutional rights, guarantee executive acquiescence with the law, congregate information for assembly of laws and enlightening the public, and appraise executive performance. It pertains to cabinet subdivisions, executive agencies, dogmatic commissions, and the administration. Congress's oversight purpose takes numerous forms like:
- Senate recommendations and approval for presidential appointments and for agreements
- House Committee exploration and hearing
- Official consultations with and information obtained from the President
- House arraignment proceedings and consequent Senate trials
- House and Senate dealings in the event that the President happens to disabled or the office of the Vice President befalls vacant.
- Unofficial meetings involving legislators and management officials, Among many others (USA Constitution, 25th Amendment)
Great Britain is also referred to as the United Kingdom. Over the years, the British Parliament has progressively limited the power of the English monarchy. The Act of Union 1707 amalgamated the English Parliament with the legislature of Scotland to form the Parliament of Great Britain. When the house of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its ex- members were amalgamated into what was currently referred as the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Due to the history and authority of the British Empire, the British assembly has turn into a form for many other nationalized legislatures. This replica is referred to as the Westminster structure. The Government is a collective noun that is used to mean all the ministers of the Crown who are all members of the houses of Parliament (Dadomo and Farran 63)
Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom that is regularly truncated as ‘HMG’ is the middle government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. From the unwritten British constitution, executive authority apparently lies with the monarch but is implemented only by and on the course and command of the Cabinet. Associates of the Government are, mutually separately and jointly, are politically answerable to Parliament and the people for recommendation to Her Majesty and all proceedings passed out in her name by ministers and their Departments of State (John 44)
H.M. Government's powers include statutory powers, general executive, delegated legislation, and several commands of rendezvous and patronage; however, several authoritative officials and organizations, are legally more or less autonomous of the Government, and on the other hand, Government supremacy are officially limited to those preserved by the Crown under Common Law or granted and limited by Act of Parliament, and are subject to the laws governing the European Community; both substantive and bureaucratic restrictions are enforceable in the Courts by judicial appraisal.
The Government is run by the Prime Minister, who is allotted by the Queen as the Member of Parliament. The Prime Minister’s office is at 10 Downing Street, which along with most government departments, is located in Westminster. It is the prime minister’s prerogative to appoint other government officials with approval of the Queen. By short-term military and fiscal laws and guidelines, the Government is dependent upon Parliament, which means that in reality a government must seek fresh mandate after five years. Conceptually, there is no devolved government in the UK (Goldstein 12).
There is the Local government in England, Local government in Scotland, Local government in Wales, Northern Ireland also has such king of governmental set up. Up to three layers of voted local commands are in place in all of the United Kingdom. Besides the legislative powers, H.M. Government has considerable authority over local and other establishment in the financial command and grants (John, Sophie and Simon 42).
Comparing and Contrasting between the French, Great Britain Governments and the USA Government
The USA has a devolved and decentralized system of administration and hence government structure that enables efficient delegation of responsibilities while the French and British structures are centralized to an executive President, a Prime Minister for France and a prime minister and a Monarch in the case of Great Britain. The British system has a Monarch led by a queen who has appointing authority not prone to vetting by the house/ any parliamentary committee where as the USA has a president whose numerous appointments are subject to approval by the congress and senate. France elects a president directly who then appoints a prime minister while the USA has no such parliamentary system like the France and Great Britain (Kaiser 65).
USA has a presidential system checked by strong Senate and Congress while the other two, Great Britain and France, adopt a parliamentary system where the prime minister is responsible for legislative house business. Britain has an imperial queen who has the powers to direct legislation, impose decrees, declare war among many others while, these are the roles of a United States President upon approval by both the Congress and Senate. The French elect a president directly who appoints a prime minister who must come from the party with majority seats in Parliament, while the Americans elect Senators and congressmen, of which Senators vote their presidential candidate hence indirect presidency. The Prime Minister of Great Britain is appointed by the queen from the house while there is no such appointment in the USA where all goes down to the ballot (Vivian 34).
In congruence, France uses the president as head of state as the same way it is handled the USA. France has separate compartments in house namely the National Assembly and Senate which is similar to the American structure of Senate and Congress. Great Britain structure has internal controls that enable regulation of legislature since government must depend upon parliament. H.M. government engages in delegated legislation, a common phenomenon in the USA.