Condorcet argued that individuals and society were perfectible through the process of reason. Both scholars agreed that population growth was a significant problem in the society, but unlike Malthus, Condorcet argued that it could be addressed through cooperative, radical means. Malthus critique of Condorcet’s argument was that he did not have any concrete proof and facts to support his argument. He noted that his theories were contradictory with the societal systems when put to practice in the real world. The principal difference between Condorcet and Malthus was their mechanism of population control (Lechner and Boli, 2011).
Condorcet was of the belief that human beings had the power to control their lives rationally, including their reproductive lives. Malthus was more skeptical of man’s ability to control his reproductive desires. He noted that there was a direct relationship between population and food, and an out-of-hand growth in population could lead to an inevitable crisis. He was of the opinion that man should use other means rather than his rationality and self-control to monitor the increase in population. This is because of man’s desire to procreate. While Condorcet believed in benevolence and altruism, Malthus believed the only human motivation was self-interest. The implication of these two approaches is that there needs to be control in the rate at which population grows to retain the balance that already exists in the society (Lechner and Boli, 2011).
Amartya Sen notes that there is a direct link between authoritarian and cooperative systems, and population growth. He notes that these two systems of governance are willing to keep population growth at manageable levels to reduce pressure on the natural resources. This is due to the scarcity of resources, and the increasing desire of human beings to marginalize their utility. He notes that the government systems have control measures to regulate population growth rates. Both government systems view population pressure as a burden on a country’ resources.