Cultural Studies

Studies of Stuart look back at the past and provide an insight into the now and the future of the cultural studies. This has been so elegantly done in a way that has not been new, but it has already been mentioned and talked about by other people in a precise and smart way; nevertheless, Stuart mentions it in a way of retrospective glance. This has to involve the genealogical and archaeological work on the historical records already archived, so that a better outlook of the cultural studies can be presented. The excitement presented in the cultural studies by Stuart makes him feel like a spirit of the past that has come back to life to make a claim to an origin. What it denotes is that everything must have some beginning in these worlds. He has a passion to speak about the past; it, in a way he says, will be able to absolve him of the many burdens of representations that so many people carry around; it is this that Stuart puts into writing, which he says is a representation of the entire black race in three perspectives: theoretical, critical and cultural studies. Cultural studies are some kind of a paradox, especially when addressed from an autobiographical point of view. The autobiography gives weight to the authority of the authenticity of an individual or a group of people, or some society. Generally, it gives the legacies of cultural studies of that group or people, whose cultural background is being addressed in a theoretical way to assert their authenticity. In order to be vivid and precise in description, the following reflections need to be adhered to in the theoretical descriptions of the cultural studies. This will enable the opening up of cultural studies as a practice in reflection in some institutions and also on its projects on matters that pertains the theoretical legacies, which represent the theoretical moments.

Hall’s Cultural Studies Reflections

Cultural studies ought to be a discursive formation; this is when broadly approached from a Foucault’s perspective. What it implies is that it must have some origin which at a glance is not simple. It then spread out and grew to recognition. The same stories are already in existence among other people, but they just need to be stated in a more vivid manner.

The story of cultural studies has to be decisive as well; this is because it is presented in different ways, but in fact, have very similar disposition of energy and direction.

The cultural studies have multiple discourses which are borrowed from different historical backgrounds that are illustrated in every story. Each one is unique in the way it is presented. They have very different conjunctures and moments that are deeply rooted in the past and involve different works.

Cultural studies have a whole set of different formations, there are many trajectories which are illustrated through the different methods of presentations and theoretical positions, still all of them are directed to bring out one contention.

It must as well possess theoretical noise. This is the same as saying that the theoretical work is at the centre of the contemporary cultural studies. This has to be accompanied by a great deal of bad feelings, arguments, unstable anxieties and angry silences.

Cultural study has to be an open- ended project. It does not have to be a policed discipline. It has to be open to what it does not yet know and neither has the name.

Cultural studies are a serious enterprise or a project that has to provide some attributes of the political aspects of the cultural studies. This creates the tension and at the same time wants to state some positions. This emphasizes on a dialogue approach to the theory. This is unique in the sense that it states how knowledge is open and can never be closed. There have been instances when the Halls’ view has been considered as anti theory; that is not working in support of the cultural theories as purported by his writings. This is especially highlighted in his address of the moments of disintegrations. These are moments like the age of Marxism, which has always been seen as a time of trouble or danger, and was never in any way a solution to the people’s problems with regard to their cultural legacy. He indeed mentions that there are several factors that variably affect our understanding of the cultural discussions from the perspective of power, the global outreach and the history making capacities of the capitals. What emanates from this discussion is their relationship in the understanding of the class and the complex understanding of the power. This is, however, an easier way of expressing culture with the attributes of exploitation. This perspective brings about different domains of life, politics, and theories, which are both the theories in their ideal form, and in practice. It also encompasses economic, political and ideological questions. Halls work can be used a standing point for the criticism of other works, especially in this case a comparative understanding of the relationship between Hall’s work and other writings like those of the Pratt’s university.

I must note that there is a very huge resemblance between their work and Stuart Hall’s work. Based on Hall’s reflection, the cultural theories and the legacies of the cultural stories, which need to be discursive, decisive and open, as pointed out above.

Alliances across the Margins

My interest lies within the description of the relationship between May Joseph’s work in comparison with Hall’s work on the cultural reflections. The writing of May Joseph’s supports Hall’s reflections of cultural studies and their theoretical legacies in a very broad sense. Firstly, May Joseph tries to bring into focus the authenticity of the Black Americans in the USA by talking about the legitimacy of the black culture. He also as well removes the burden of representing the community just the same way as Stuart removed the burden by talking about the black people in it. This as well has not been so good regarding the interpretation by people and critics. ‘It has been understood as cultural reparation and sovereignty with some tints of struggle for empowerment that was facing the black people at the time in the US’ (Joseph, 1997, p. 597). In this perspective, it is decisive in the sense that it addresses a specific issue in the culture of people; it is also discursive in the sense that it shows the origin and it addresses the current position of the black people,  their future and their fight for empowerment in the next century. This, however, did not meet the entire basis for this fight of authenticity as the impact of social movements in America, especially through the theaters, which was a major medium, in which such information was publicized. However, he emphasizes on cultural sovereignty, which has been a major idea for the black cultural resistances in the US, which had influence on the whole world. Joseph’s work gives reference to various speeches that authenticate the origin of the black cultural resistance just like Hall did share the inspiration behind his information of cultural information. May Joseph refers to Wilson’s speech that had been dubbed ‘The ground on which I stand’, which was a provocative statement that was a reminder of the struggles for the sovereignty of the black culture. This, in general, is the origin of radicalism of the Black culture in the revolutionary struggle for cultural nationalism. The same stories have as well been thought of by other like-minded people on the same course of the black cultural sovereignty, by activists and intellectuals, including Elijah Mohammed, Martin R. Delany and Marcus Garvey in different ways and methods to portray the supremacy of the black culture. He as well emphasizes on differences between the Black cultures and other Americans minorities, which have been based on the different founding and shaping violence and hopes. All this gives different attributes of the different cultural histories that paint the broad picture of the cultural sovereignty of different communities. There are also multiple discourses from his approach, which involves the discussion of black radicalism and civil rights. This has been the basis for the formation of the contemporarily left culture. There is also a mention of colonial and postcolonial history involving neo imperialisms, transnational and globalized network that assisted in the fight for the black culture sovereignty. This fight never ended without foreseeing of the negative impact, which ranged from discrimination, such as Claudia Jones, who was an African American communist imprisoned and deported to Britain. Others included Elizabeth Catlett, who had to move to Mexico so as to find a greater audience, Paul Robeson, who was in Europe during the Second World War and culminated in his speech in 1949 due to his commitment towards the black self-determination and communism, which were all political factors.

The benefits of the fights for the Black sovereignty became a key thing in influencing and shaping the initiatives of the modern citizenship on a national scale. The Pan-African identity and Pan-Africanism were the most useful ways of coping with bigotry, prejudice and racism. Wilson’s speech has really vital elements in Joseph’s writing that bring about the aspect of cultural studies and their theoretical legacies. It brought into focus the open-ended project of bringing into existence a center where African-American actors could workshop and experiment on the reflections of such theories. In order to succeed, it had to work ideological and national boundaries, which enabled the development of transnational socialism and international labor movements. All in all, Wilson’s speech was so powerful that it portrayed the possible impact of the African American communities in the hall of the official cultures, especially concerning the groups that made up the minority. The future with black sovereignty was as bright as many elites groups, intellectuals and writers came up with the local’s contents to enlighten the group to face the truth about authenticity of their origin and to answer lots of questions that had remained unanswered for long periods of time.

The Weight of the Nightmares

Zatz talks about it in a broad way; he talks about small screens, social space and the representation of the contemporary capitalism. He basically defines capitalism as a system of representation. It was a political economy, whose main interest is value of money. This has never been for the interest of the human needs, but expressed as a medium of exchange. This has been the focus of the producers mainly in order to place the goods in market for sale. This as well comes with the attached qualities of a human object; it includes specific conditions of production, emotional or psychological attachment. This is what has been broadly discussed by Marx as an abstract value, the commodification of objects for value of exchange, or the human labor power regardless of the specificity of the characteristics. ‘He has shared his thoughts in the same way with other political economists such as Adam Smith and David Ricardo’ (Zatz, 2005, p.143). They believe that capitalists is a natural thing, it is more of ontology rather than an ideology in its philosophical terms. They operate in a way that exhibits some form of life in them. All the social relations have been based on a specific manner of illustration that is far from being real. This, when correlated with the Hall’s reflection in his writings, indicate that Zatz’s and Hall’s descriptions have a very strong similarity in the sense that they show some origin, which Stuart Hall describes as discursive, while at the same time he also indicates that it has some decisive aspect in the way it is presented. He has as well illustrated his political aspect of the capitalist ideology in his study of capitalism. The origin of all this capitalism and the socialist perspective is money, which stands as the universal equivalent of all aspects of the dance of commodity. The same money when looked from the reverse perspective would not have any reality without the relations to sustain it by the mechanism of exchange in a capitalistic point of view. This is what is referred to as social relations. It is the same money that, on the other hand, regulates and legitimizes the social processes that work with capitalism and, in turn, reduces the attributes of people and things to a quantifiable and a calculable form, which creates an illusion. This is what makes it common to Hall’s reflections of a cultural description. It has an origin and the current understanding that gives the contemporary expression of the view, which can as well be casted to express the outlook later in the future. This he describes as a web of relations of productions, which occur in everyday life as circulation, and consumption that has been contextualized as an institutional power and bureaucratic control. This is the image money has created. It is because of this that the reduction of capitalistic society into a money economy is very difficult because of the social relations with people and money. Capitalism is a gigantic system of representation. Some factors that have been cited in this cause include production and practice of social space as a material of capitalism. This expresses different formations, in which capitalism authenticates its existence in the society and as a way of creating authority for its existence. Social space is one factor, which illustrates the participation of such elements as industrial capitalism. He has well brought into perspective the cotemporary form of capitalism, which has been branded globalization. It has as well been considered flexible kind of production. This is just a bigger screen of capitalism, just like a large screen of the cinema compared to television and computers. That is a big picture of the contemporary society regarding the capitalism.

This has been illustrated in a wide array of methodologies. The contrast and the metaphorical language give the best image of the big picture of the impact of capitalism on people, and the effect it creates on society and the whole human life. The objects in the capitalistic world have more life that the humanity in an individual who is a laborer in an industrial company that is of less interest to the world because the value lies in the final product. The transition states from modernism to post modernism and the transition to the just-in-time production remains a mystery. Zatz explains that it is the analyst’s role to put this into position and explain the emergence of this psychology that is social in nature. This as well goes back to history as expressed by Stuart Hall’s reflection, which explains the origin of the whole situation. What he does express, is that at a certain point in history, there was a sudden turning point that fell prey to the penetration of the film, TV and other visual mass media. This is the element of space that has been the key one in capitalistic world. This in essence can be discussed incessantly that the project of capitalism is an open-ended project that allows one to decisively express the multiple discourse in different trajectories. Hall’s reflection has been the key factor in Zatz’s discussion of capitalism. It is in this manner that I positively should state that Zatz’s writing to the greatest point share the same mind set in expressing the cultural studies.

The martial Art of “cinema”

Jonathan Beller expresses the urgent relationship among the visuality, corporeality, choreography and other factors, such as gender, digitization and capitalism in films. This has been one way, which made the fight for representation and the struggle in most aspects legible to the audiences who watch films and other visual products. This is the fight for the authenticity as a struggle and hence it is a powerful weapon in the social programming. ‘The film is also an agent in which the culture stories and other mediums have been much focus for legibility’ (Beller, 20ll, p.282). It has therefore expressed the different formations through which cultural expressions have been given focus. Just like Hall’s description about the negativity of such moves, this has been seen like a weapon and the wrought by the relentless capitalization. To achieve this, it has been expressed in different discernible forms, which include spatialization, temporality, action, genre, inscription and other experiential moments. This in a way illustrates different trajectories of different formations. The use of cinema has been seen as a way of thinking about the vast networks of intermediates and as an endeavor to express the modes of politicization to enable control by the society. Some of the most thrilling films include the clip from The House of Flying Daggers in the year 2003. This has been classified as the woman warrior directed by Zhang Yimou. She is a film maker with a very long history of being a cameraman for the Yellow Earth in 1984. This has a long history in a time when it failed to answer people’s needs even after changing the format of people’s cultural forms. Ziyi Zhang has also been recognized as a woman warrior in the times when she launched a warrior for secret organizations that opposed the government. This is a history of resistance that is very similar to the one that was faced by Hall in his writing and expression of his mind about the cultural studies and the legacies of the theories. The authors as well use different methodologies in the expression of these messages. Ziyi Zhang created scenes in which he was threatened arrest. She is very figurative in a way of expressing the situations that not even words would suffice to give the description of it. This is what needs to be associated with the cultural studies in order to sustain the authenticity of its legacies. Several other films such as How Does One Deal a Vast Array Of the Ambient Forces of Empire. It contextualizes what it sees as an unfair turn and makes it comic in the film. This is illustrated in a wave of projectiles speeding towards drums as well as using a bowl of beans just as an illustration of how time flies and slows down. This is figuratively well-illustrated in a manner that generates an anticipated drum beat. This is also another indication that language is not just enough, bodily expression, memory and featuring of sensitivity is also required. Athleticism, dances, choreography and musicality creates a climax with an increasing frequency and that is when the message is delivered in such  moves as the cultural understanding. This as well has been an open-ended story line that handles all the perspectives in Hall’s reflection in the description of the Martial Art of Cinema. The transition over time has also been reflected in the story line. She talks of the postmodernism that renders the sublime. In some way, this has killed the authenticity of egos in the ideal story line about the history of the Martial Art. The history of the cinema has in its list history of mathematics, computation and capitalism on the global scale, which has created conditions that express the possibility of annihilation. This in a broad point of view illustrate that just thoughts alone will not be able to secure one from the freedom and ordinary action. That is the kind of contentions that the writing carries and he cultural studies need to carry around in order to pass over the message to the people. This has been advanced more by the computerization of the modes, which have been influenced by the financialization of the society due to the capital that in a broad way marginalizes the traditional way of human signification. This is the kind of a very decisive approach to the works as written in its original format, which in a similar way reflects Hall’s attributes of reflections about the cultural studies in his writings. This is when looking at it in a broad sense. This has as well addressed the effect of his writings to the social change of people depending on the mode of presentations, which combine in the different trajectories.

We can therefore conclude that cultural studies is an area of that embraces the critical concept of criticism, openness and decisiveness in the aspect of expression and bearing on the sense of the historical authenticity. For the whole aspect of maintaining the cultural legacies, the story has to be decisive, discursive and address the idea from the multiple discourse points of view in order to accommodate different trajectories that bear the historical aspects in the past and present and to be able to create a cast of the future. In addition, the story has to bear different political aspects of cultural studies so that it will remain in action and will be carried down the lane of history with a reflection. This must also possess the conflicts or the negative side of the story, because there is nothing that is always perfect in output and the fight for the freedom as such in the American History has overdue impacts that still hang in the people’s minds. In pursuit of the cultural studies, the major themes have been revolving around the concept of ideology, sexuality, nationalism, social representations or class, which, in the contemporary sense, has killed the people’s ego of ascertaining their history. Above all, we can therefore state that cultural studies seeks to clarify the ways and the means, in which people will be able to find out and understand their historical setup through the various institutions, social structures, beliefs, economic and other mechanisms, which continue being diversified with time and as well with the advent of other sophisticated technology.

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