In sociology, deviance is a term that explains behaviors or actions that go against the social norms and/or cultural norms. Formal deviance occurs when enacted laws are violated, .e.g. in case of robbery. Informal deviance is violation of norms that have not been passed to laws, e.g. sneezing loudly.

The concept of sanction relates to responsibility. It is a legal process that is carried into effect when an individual is mandated to compensate for the damage caused on another person. Social control is basically the political or societal mechanisms that standardize one’s behavior so that they adhere to the rules of the land. Fundamental mechanisms of social control include the family, language, school, church and media. They ensure that in most situations, individuals do those things that conform to the norms and expectation of the society. Family is the most basic mechanism as this is where the parents orient the kids throughout the childhood and adolescence. 

Sex is the state of being a male or female. It is the biological difference in terms of external and internal sex organs, chromosomes and human profiles. Gender depicts the masculinity or femininity of a person which is outlined by the society or culture. Boys and girls in the United States learn gender roles through socialization (e.g. a father showing his son how to repair things) and through the media. These differences are significant because gender roles adopted during the childhood often continue to the adulthood.  

Frame is the study of social interaction among people. The purpose of framing in sociology is to generalize an issue or an opinion in form of pictures or words. The words or pictures are used in order to attract the audience and persuade them to agree with the point of view.

Capitalism is the social system that exists in many countries of the world. In capitalism the means of producing and distributing goods are owned by a minority of people known as the capitalist class. For sociologists, capitalism has been of interest due to its social effects because it has led to inequality, anomie, class struggle and social problems.  

There are several main social controversies behind the emergence of the new reproductive technologies. These technologies pose a challenge to the traditional perception of the relationship between sex and procreation. They also affect the structure of linage and kinship networks. Most of these technologies increase the risks of multiple pregnancies, ectopic pregnancies and ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome.

Emile Durkheim, a French sociologist, described the term anomie as a condition of deregulation that used to occur in the society. He meant that rules that controlled how people behaved to each other were breaking down making people’s expectations for each other a mystery.

In political process theory, insurgent consciousness refers to grievances and deprivation ideas. The idea behind this term is that some members of a society feel like they are mistreated and that is not accorded with them.

Social network is a theory used in social sciences to study relationship that exist between individuals, groups, societies or even in organizations. The study focuses on the ties, links and the nodes.

The basic nature of collective behavior or group behavior differs depending on intended actions. For mass actions, people tend to behave similarly on a universal scale, e.g. shoppers in different malls. For group action, people’s behavior is usually coordinated with a particular motive.

Hidden curriculum is an expression used to refer to all beliefs, knowledge and values that are part of the learning process but unrecognized. All the unacknowledged and unarticulated things taught to students explain best the term hidden curriculum. This is a vital issue in the sociological study of how leaning institutions generate social inequality.     

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