Trends in the Literature
- Focus on women
- Focus on men
Researched aspects of gender and employment
- Women rise in education/job
- How women cope with men working under them
- Men’s reaction when working under women
Aspects that need to be researched further
- Men’s drop in education/career leadership
- Factors that influence women’s rise in education/career
Gender and Employment
Narrator: What are the trends in the literature review regarding gender and employment? In a review to this question, the above articles indicate that most research has been focused on women’s rise in education/career.
Richard & Chadwick (2010) extensively focus on why women have ascended the career ladder in relation to men working under them. According to Eagly & Carli (2003), it can be deducted that most interest is given on women’s elevation in the career ladder as they continue to outnumber the men in notable corporate positions. However, AlMunajjed (2009), has also focused on how men continually cope with working under women as their leaders in organizations. Schaffer, Joplin, Bell, Lau, & Oguz (2000) examine the stereotypes associated with men taking up jobs that were initially a reserve for the women. The stereotypes regarding to women holding high positions have also been examined by the literature concerning gender and employment (Beneria, 2001).
The significant aspects of the topic that have been researched include what facilitated women’s rise in education and career, which is attributed to the lack of an opportunity for them to express their potential (Domenico & Jones, 2006, p. 6). In addition, stereotypes played a significant role in ensuring that women served at low positions in organizations as big positions were a reserve for men (Floro & Meurs, 2009). Marinova (2003) points out that men were deemed as hardworking; thus, the reason why they held significant positions in organizations (International Labour Office Geneva, 2006). Another aspect that has been researched on this topic regards how women cope when working as leaders and men serving under them (Lim, 2000). Thus, it has being established that women have learnt to survive when in control as they depict some form of masculinity in them, which makes men respect them (International Labour Organization, 2009). Women’s performance in top position has been compared with men serving at the same position, and the articles assert that women receive less credit while men are considered most favorable for the positions regarding their performance (Löfström, 2008). However, GenSET partner organisation (2011) observes that men are have learnt to cope working under women as women in executive positions have being depicted as warm and encouraging.
Perrons (2009) notes that much research is required on two topics, which include men’s drop in career/leadership positions and the factors that influenced women’s rise in the same line. On matters concerning men’s descend in career/leadership, it is noted that there is minimum literature review regarding that topic because most scholars focus only with why women have succeeded in ascending the career/education ladder. The reason might be that men have held the positions for a long while researchers have assumed it was their preserve, but now they have neglected the alarming trend with their focus to empower women in education and career. On the other hand, most research also needs to be done regarding what propelled women to such heights in career and education (Marinova, 2003). This is because of the minimal literature review available regarding the matter as the only reason provided is that in the past women were not provided with the opportunity to express their potential in education and career lines (Merrill-Sands & Scherr, 2001).