The grand nursing theory, which incorporates the Roy’s Adaptation Model, is one of the most beneficial nursing structures. The current paper will demonstrate the importance of this nursing theory, its major concepts and their interrelations, and the appliance of the model in nursing education. 

The Importance of Nursing Theory

The grand nursing theory known as Roy’s Adaptation Model is one of the most wide spread frameworks utilized in various nursing facets. The appliance of Roy’s Adaptation Model is changing from one design to another on a basis of the awaited objectives and the character of adaptation level necessary for monitoring. Roy's Adaptation Model is one of the most beneficial concerted frameworks, which directs nursing practice, guides research and impacts nursing education. This framework is very important, as it concentrates on individuals’ adaptability to alternating setting and directs the evaluation of individuals’ adaptability. Roy’s Adaptation Model (RAM) enlarges the abilities of nurses concerning the improvement of individual reciprocity with the surrounding setting, which provides an efficient adaptability. The RAM incorporates a consecutive nursing procedure, which guides nursing practice towards equipping a holistic treatment for patients. Sister Callista Roy evolved her prominent nursing Adaptation model theory in 1976. In fact, nursing theories structure, define and describe the equipping of nursing treatment and care. The model developed by Roy view the individual as a compendium of interconnected psychological, biological and social systems. The individual endeavors to sustain a balance between all of these systems and the external world, however there is no all-round balance level. The model suggests that individuals desire to live within an exceptional setting, in which they can manage the life in an adequate manner.

Key Points of Roy’s Adaptation Model

Roy’s model incorporates four domain conceptions: individual, health, setting, and nursing. The model comprises a six-step nursing procedure as well.  The Adaptation Model views an individual as a bio-psycho-social human being, who exists in permanent reciprocity with an altering setting. The individual is an open, adjustable system who utilizes managing capacities and abilities in order to cope with stress factors. Roy views the setting as all circumstances, conditions and impacts, which encompass and influence the evolvement and conduct of the individual. Roy views stress factors as inceptives and utilizes the term ‘residual stimuli’ in order to depict specific stress factors whose impact on the individual is not obvious. Roy originally believed that health and disease are on a continuous sequence, which is characterized with numerous discrepant possible conditions and degrees. Nevertheless, Roy currently claims that health concerns the procedure of being and becoming an integrated and complete individual. Roy’s objective for nursing regards the ascension of adaptability in each of the four above-mentioned domains, therefore contributing to the individual’s health, caliber of life and death with meritoriousness. These four domains also incorporate the physiological state, self-esteem, major functions and interconnection. Roy utilized a six-step nursing procedure, including the conduct assessment, stimuli assessment, nursing diagnosis, objective establishment, interference and examination. Thus, firstly, the individual’s conduct is observed in each of the four above-mentioned domains. This conduct is contrasted with standards and is regarded either adjustable or ineffectual. The second step concerns the agents, which affect the conduct. The agents, which are also known as stimuli, are assorted as pivotal, contextual, and residual. The focal incentive concerns the things, which directly confront the individual. On the other hand, contextual incentives regard other agents, which contribute to the focal incentives. Finally, residual incentives are the undetermined environmental agents, which can affect the situation. Thirdly, the nursing diagnosis regards the ascertaining of the ineffectual conducts together with the determination of the potential reason. The fourth step, which concerns the objective establishment, is the focal point. Objective should be rational and achievable and are established in cooperation with the individual. Fifthly, interference appears when the stimuli are operated and affected. This fifth step is also defined as the ‘doing phase’. The final stage appears when the examination occurs. The degree of alterations as revealed by shift in conduct is defined. Ineffectual conducts have to be reevaluated, and the interferences have to be approved.

 As the individual is viewed as a bio-psycho-social being who is recurrently cooperating with the setting, the individuals’ objective through this cooperation concerns adaptation. Thus, Roy believes that the individual has two main inner processing subsystems, including the adjuster and the cognator. These two subsystems are the instruments utilized by the individual to deal with stimuli and stress factors from the inner and outer setting and environment. The adjuster instrument operates originally via the autonomic nervous system and incorporates endocrine, nervous, and reception ways. This instrument makes the individual ready for dealing with exogenous incitements. The cognator instrument incorporates emotions, perceptual/data readjustment, studying, and assertion. The procedure of reception connects these two instruments. RAM defines adaptation as the procedure and output in which cogitative and infelt individuals utilize conscious cognition in order to create the connection between human reception and their settings. RAM outlines individual as an adjustable system, which is capable o responding to various inner and outer environmental inceptives both positively and negatively. The responses of individuals to any setting alteration are target to their managing acts.

 
 

Roy’s Adaptation Model and Nursing Education

Roy’s Adaptation Model seriously contributes to the nursing activity, researching, management, and especially education. The theory has been regarded to be a beneficial model-grounded data equipping theory for at least the past 35 years. The impact of the grand theory and its model on nursing education is substantive and continues further to influence on the nursing education due to its primary fundamental roots in practice and its sustained increase and evolvement. Thus, it is obvious that the Roy’s Adaptation Model is highly beneficial in educational environment. Roy claims that the model outlines the clear objective of nursing for the students, which stands for the promotion of individuals’ adaptability in each of the adaptive domains in cases of both health state and current disease. For example, the School of Nursing at the University of Ottawa underwent a fundamental curriculum alteration in 1980’s. This alteration incorporated the inclusion of a Roy’s nursing model, which has been used as a fundamental ground of the new curriculum. The Roy Adaptation Model was the main model, which had to be incorporated in the first year of the baccalaureate project. As a matter of fact, the professors of the nursing school were supposed to meet four challenges during this alteration course and actually successfully performed it. Firstly, they had to adapt the course in such way for it to become corresponding with and acceptable for the Roy’s model. Secondly, they had to develop specific teaching tools appropriate for nursing students’ education. Thirdly, the professors of the nursing school had to sequence the content for nursing students’ education. Finally, they were supposed to obtain the adequate and sufficient role models. Thus, the previous example demonstrates that the Roy’s Adaptation Model has been utilized widely to direct practice and to arrange the overall nursing education. An evident advantage of the theories created on a basis of Roy’s model lies is their extensive scope. Such theories are applicative to all clinical environments in nursing practice. Due to the fact that adaptation model is highly beneficial, it was adopted as a constituents of the nursing curricular framework in numerous learning institutions, colleges and nursing departments, including the Boston College School of Nursing, the Mount Saint Mary’s College Department of Nursing, the University of Texas at Austin School of Nursing, and the University of Miami health care and nursing practitioner project. Students and health care professionals execute and adopt the model on worldwide scale, as it equips them with the solid base of nursing practice, assists them in generating of further cognizance and defines the tendency for the further nursing development in the future.

Conclusions

The grand nursing theory known as Roy’s Adaptation Model is one of the most wide spread frameworks utilized in various nursing facets. The model developed by Roy view the individual as a compendium of interconnected psychological, biological and social systems. The individual endeavors to sustain a balance between all of these systems and the external world, however there is no all-round balance level. Roy’s model incorporates four domain conceptions: individual, health, setting, and nursing. The model comprises a six-step nursing procedure as well.  The Adaptation Model views an individual as a bio-psycho-social human being, who exists in permanent reciprocity with an altering setting. Roy’s major purpose of nursing concerns the adaptability ascension in each of the four domains, contributing to the individual’s health, caliber of life and death with meritoriousness. These four domains incorporate the physiological state, self-esteem, major functions and interconnection. Roy’s Adaptation Model seriously contributes to the nursing activity, researching, management, and especially education. The nursing theory equips students and health care professionals with the solid base of nursing education and purpose, as defines a clear objective of nursing, which stands for the promotion of individuals’ adaptation in all adaptive domains.

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