Human nature is described as the concept which explains that there is a group of the inherent distinguishing characteristics in human beings. These include the ways of feeling, acting, and thinking that people tend to possess. The state has been understood as the consequence of human nature since the oldest of the philosophic traditions. Plato attempted to harmonize the elements of human nature in order to exhibit that the large-scale justice that furnishes the mirror to the souls of men. We also find Aristotle adapting the various available forms of polity to the requirements of the environment or race. The Romans also founded the jus natural which deals with human nature and the society according to (Michael 45). Hobbes guards against the natural depravity of human beings which had been discovered by the church.
The human nature could be exhaustively explained as self consciousness, the desire to have a purposeful life, the urge to avoid extra pain, the desire for freedom from all the external interference, the positive desire to have, acquire and/or own personal property and finally the passion that human beings have of distinction. However socialism does not allow any room for the positive pursuit of personal ambition. There is always need to understand well that the men and women cannot simply be seen as a history being or socio-economic being; rather, there should be considerations of the intrinsic elements that constitute the real nature of all personhood. These considerations are quintessential in achieving a very well ordered society and hence state (Michael 124). Therefore self consciousness guides the nature of human interaction in different societies.
All the ideas that are behind political and socio-economic policies of a government, society or state are often predicated upon various ideologies. Ideology is a philosophy and therefore it is alright for us to conclude that socialism and human nature are ideological basis upon which we can found an ordered, incorruptible and peaceful society. Socialism that is based on all ontological presuppositions of the communalism is frequently prescribed. The scholars who support this kind of socialism and human nature believe that capitalism promotes a bi-polarization of the people living in a particular state into various classes of the oppressor and the oppressed. This belief of most of the advocates of this socialist ideology also indicates that just the taking up of socialism is known to be a panacea to all the problems of the state or society (Opafola 67). Ideology therefore forms the basis of human interaction and how systems in a certain state, society or nation are shaped and function.
Other scholars believe that socialism and human nature are not the only ways of life but they are described to be some scientific approach to economic and social problems. This discussion on the nature of human beings is so complex and wide such that it has drawn the attention of psychologists, sociologists, philosophers, economists and also natural scientists. Some of these scholars argue that the human beings are finished products of the society; others argue that the human nature is known to be a product of the biological drives that are explained through the genetic codes (Michael 89). However, the only important factor is that the true nature of the human beings is known and that the future and present actions could be controlled, explained and possibly predicted.
The understanding of human nature leads to social engineering and re-engineering and this leads to social stability and hence state stability. The human person needs shelter, food, and also the society of other persons. These needs or even desires are undisputable and general facts about the human nature. The human being components as regards society or state as shown by the human nature include the requirement of society by the other human people (Opafola 3). There are also many theories that have been brought up in an attempt to understand the individual and social components of the human nature. These theories include the Lockean, religious, scientific, Marxian, Hobbesian, Aristotelian, and existentialist.
The Marxian theory indicates that the human nature is mainly determined by economics, and that it offers a very radical philosophy which explains conflict as an outcome of the constraints of the human existence (Marx 123). This theory also asserts that human beings are social beings who are the human world, the society, and also the state. Marx explains that it is wrong to assert that men are egoistic, selfish or altruistic because these do not reflect what human nature truly is. It is also truly explained that man by nature is a productive, dynamic, social and an economic being without any alienation.
Freedom is also very common in the societies and/or state and it is because of the human nature which is made up of human people. According to the theories of human nature and especially the Marxian theory, freedom is the capacity of the people to build decisions that are founded on the needed necessity, and to also act with the knowledge of the matter (Michael 143). Freedom is also explained as the control of human beings over nature, over herself/himself and over the social relationships. This is why we find so many freedoms in the constitutions of many states because the intrinsic human nature entails being free from any interference, desire to live a purposeful life, the quick possibility to implement manifold abilities and also the personal desire to own personal property. Freedom and human rights forms the basis for which human nature co-exist having diverse interests.
Many communist states or societies are unable to adopt or implement the human nature theory of freedom and we find many wars in the countries between the governments and the citizens. When the Marxism-Leninism theory described above is used in some parts of the world, it expresses the autocratic tendencies and this does not permit the people to exercise their personal will. The human nature has brought order in the states and societies. This is through the explanations given by the theories. They give scientific materialistic explanation of the human history which is free from the characteristic gap in previous explanations of the human nature. This is the scientific socialism theory which is linked with the revolutionary practice. For example; on the basis of the theories, Marx, Lenin and Engels were able to turn the socialist utopias and also separate the socialist ideas from the dream about some just society which would be cherished by the exploited and the oppressed into some helpful scientific programme and theory of overthrowing the system of exploitation, and also of the conscious building of socialism (Zakharov 18). Human nature is regarded as paramount component in uniting societies and it elements despite conflicting interests and ideologies.
Marx explains that there are two classes of people in the society. These include the “haves” who are known to control the processes of production of goods and they gain the biggest share of wealth from the production and “have-nots” whose work and labor is exploited in order to enrich the upper class of the “haves” (Perry 529). They therefore hold that capitalism does not distribute its profits, resources and benefits to the great mass of persons. The human nature is known to encourage and promote industrialization and globalization due to widespread use of capitalism. This could have both positive and negative effects. Widespread globalization is known to erode national cultures and it is also known to increase the gap between the “have-nots” and the “haves” and these could create social or state disorders. Capitalism is known to create unhealthy rivalry which is an example of social disorder. Global wealth is known to have increased though it is increasingly concentrated in the few hands and also few countries (Perry 530). However, human nature does allow thrilling of any ideology that members of that specific society in consensus decide to follow as long as principles of human nature are upheld.
All the economic, social or political ideologies should always have a holistic view of the human nature. These ideologies should recognize that the human being is not a composition of a unitary element, but a human person is a conglomeration of so many attributes, which are inherent in both the social dimensions and the individual dimensions of the human nature. Locke explains that the human persons are not entirely selfish because they at some point work for the entire good of other persons and also they co-operate with one another. When the people in a state work and co-operate with each other this promotes unity and economic revival and continuity of the state as a whole (Locke 259). Therefore a well organized ideology will promote peaceful and harmonious co-existence among members in the society.
Human beings are sometimes thought to be governed by the rule of nature with the provision that no one should harm another person in his life, liberty, possessions or health. The government should enhance unity in their states by acknowledging that there are some areas of the human conduct which are very immune from any interference from the government. These are referred to as “rights”, and these include freedom to worship and to speak as one likes and chooses. One of the most emphasized right is the right to acquire private property for their own use (Locke 269). This is because the private and personal property is only acquired after one has labored for it. However, the social dimension of the good for all is also more emphasized because co-operation is required in a state in order that the people live harmoniously. Therefore we can conclude that the human nature is very essential in the society and also in the state.