Anderson, Austin, Holloway, and Kulkarni (2012) claim that modern America is a post racial country, which has overcome social discrimination based on racism. The issue of racism was common during the last fifty years. During this period, America has witnessed a change in civility and social inequality. Anderson et al. (2012) point out that progress in growth of the black middle class and election of the black president were among the most significant racial changes, which has proclaimed America as a post racial country (a country freed from racism). The growth of cosmopolitanism in the American cities has also created a viewpoint that appreciation of diversity among the races is attempting to end the social barriers.

Through their diverse experience as American sociologists, supported by their extensive field research in Memphis, Tennessee, Blytheville, and Arkansas cities in South America, Anderson et al. (2012) state that, “America is far from being a post racial society” (p.26). Armed with their field research evidence, they also pointed out clearly that the Jim Crow regime was gone, but the caste system existed and is still observed today. From their fall  ethnographic research that took place in 2010, it was concluded that racism existed in American culture although it was manifested as quite different from what it was in the past. The white race still feels superior over the black one. The four researchers show how they would find themselves in social stratification during their interaction with the residents in their field research. The researchers explained the contributions of the two main local working conceptions held by the two races to the current and possible future racial inequalities.

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