Racial and Ethnical Inequality

Ethnic and racial inequality is defined as only a social construction but is not a natural entity that is present in the world. In the United States, the social construction existed between whites, blacks, Native Americans, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders and Asians. This classification is extended due to progress of assimilation and amalgamation. There is segregation due to color, poverty levels, educational attainment levels, family and household composition, health and demographic levels, infant mortality rates, disability rates, life expectancy rates, and finally morbidity rates (Maria & Amanda 2006). These racial and ethnic groups differ in rates of residential segregation, home ownership, overall wealth, in access to power in the upper parts of the hierarchies, and the exposure to toxic pollutants and crime.

The American Indians are known to be the smallest and the poorest minority group although this is changing drastically. I believe that racial and ethnical inequality has been greatly reduced in the United States, though there are still some aspects that have been left out. With time and with the same vigor, the Americans and their government will be able to totally abolish racism and ethnicity. This is well shown by them electing President Obama as their leader.

Ascriptive inequality is transformed by a number of events that are interrelated. The economic growth that is evident forms a backdrop for a period of substantive changes in ethnic and racial inequality in the United States. The differences between the whites and the blacks on income and education are slowly narrowing down. The rising common levels of prosperity have created a considerable black middle class (Lee 2002). There is also the open opportunity structure that is created by the increasing and expanding economy which has eased the incorporation of grandchildren and children of members of the blacks. This has greatly reduced racism.

There is a high rate of intermarriage between these communities such that most of the members of the conformist European nationalized descent populations are of different mixed ethnic descent. There are also equal opportunities of education and also the returns of the education are also offered to everyone who can afford to pay for them. These returns include employment opportunities and this has greatly reduced the poverty levels of the minority groups. The black and white distribution to various occupations has become more similar in the recent past and also the percentage of the individuals from the minority groups in managerial and professional positions has greatly increased (Sniderman & Edward 1997).

There was the defeat of Jim Crow racism which has greatly changed the terrain of racism and ethnicity. There was also the victory of the civil rights that has helped to restructure the terrain of racism on how it is reproduced, understood and enacted. The racism is now at the regime of laissez-faire which is more permeable and more fluid. There is an acknowledgement by all Americans and also the government officials on racial prejudice and discrimination and this is a step to decrease and diminish the existing racism and ethnicity (Lee 2002). Steps have now been taken to address the shortcomings of the minority groups in social and economic life. The myth of racial equality has exploded and is encouraged.

The United States as a nation has strived to move away from the binary racial classification system which was there traditionally to a new one since 1990 which “multiracial” or mixed racial identities have been encouraged and become more commonplace. The United States has adopted measures to diminish racism and ethnicity and these are the measures that target university admissions, government employment and all businesses competing for the public funds that are given. These measures are for all residents of the United States regardless of their races or ethnic backgrounds (Maria & Amanda 2006). There are also other affirmative actions that have been put in place. The courts and other powerful agencies have made the policy decision that would reject the metropolitan-level segregation and this has helped a lot in putting an end to racism and ethnicity in the United States.

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