The term sociology is deduced from the Latin name “Socius”. Sociology refers to the scientific study about the society. The science of sociology uses a number of techniques of empirical investigation coupled with decisive scrutiny. These methods assist sociologists to come up with a variety of knowledge under social human activity. The core of sociology drifts from micro level of personal agency and interaction to the macro degree of systems and the social structure. Hence, traditional aims of sociology comprise of social stratification, religion, deviance, social mobility, law among many other elements. The phases of human life are influenced by the interaction between individual agency and social structure. Sociology is therefore a discipline of its own and should not be confused with some general social studies that contain little shallow connection to sociological theories.
Sexual class refers to a romantic or affection attraction towards other people. Sexual class defines the lasting pattern of attraction to the opposite or similar sex, or the two sexes or none and the genders that accompany come with them. The attractions are covered under androgyny, asexuality, bisexuality or homosexuality. Persons who identified themselves, as bisexual might prefer be looking down upon one sex at the expense of another. Asexuality refers to the state of lacking evident sex or sex organs. Homosexuality refers to the condition of having sexual attractions or ties with individuals of similar sexuality while androgyny refers to state of having both feminine and masculine traits (Elias 1978).
Sexual class may also refer to an individual’s sense of social identity or personal identity centered on characters portraying them and the belonging in a community of people who share the same identities. Sexual class has no single cause but rather a combination of hormonal, environmental effects and finally genetic causes. Additional to these causes are biological factors that involve a connection of genetic aspects and the first uterine surrounding. The two terms Androphilia and Gynephilia in behavioral science describe sexual attraction as an option to a homosexual and heterosexual formulation. These terms are used in finding an individual’s aim of attraction without allotting gender identity to the subject.
Psychiatrists explain that both Androphilia and Gynephilia are (Graaff 2002) needed to supersede the immense hardships in the characterization of sexual classes of both transman and women. For instance, it is impossible to decide whether a transman attracted to males is a heterosexual female or homosexual male. Secondly, a transwoman attracted to women is a lesbian or a heterosexual male. Efforts to make classification may be futile because of the confusion likely to happen or the arousal of provocation in the affected individuals. According to sexologists, the three terms that are heterosexual, bisexual and homosexual are convenient to use, as adjectives and are better applied to behaviors not individuals (Inkeles 1964).
The suggested usage of the terms is beneficial when discussing intersexed individuals. In sociology, the new terms do not bear the social weight of the earlier terms. Researchers champion use of the nomenclature in order to avoid prejudice underlying western formulations of human sexuality. Though the terms enjoy support from a certain divide of researchers, other researchers have criticized the two labels saying that the labels neglect individual’s personal sense of gender identity taking priority over biological sex.
Gender identity has exceedingly been seen as a process different from sexual orientation. Cisgender or Transgender individuals may be interested and attracted to women, men or both. Presently, several members and supporters of gay and lesbian groups perceive the “gender-conforming heterosexual “as discriminatory stereotypes. An ethnic group or community can adopt a different culture due to it relevance politically or superiority amongst the individuals. The term “Aussie” was used in the event of World War 1 to identify Australian born people of Irish ancestry. Originally, the term described enthusiastic people who would soldier through difficult times (Furze 2011).
Australia’s dominant language since colonization is English, with minimal mult-lingual’s among the major population. However, both the diverse and aboriginal groups and a number of immigrants continue using other languages apart from English. Before the Europeans invaded Australia there were approximately 250 Aboriginal languages, many of which had distinguishable accents. Today about ninety of these languages are being spoken with a minimum of twenty highly familiarized to the Australian indigenous children. The decrease in speaking of aboriginal languages could be attributed to the effects of colonization. Amidst few Aboriginal groups particularly to the north, many unique Creole accents mix Aboriginal languages with English.
There are three social classes in Australia. The classes include the rich, middle and the working classes, but the limits between these classes are negotiable. The richest that make up a percentage of 5 to 10 are considered to be upper class with their possessions derived from the control of property and capital. The middle group is described as individuals with occupations that are not manual. The country’s professions like engineers and medical doctors have been the fast growing sectors of the Australian economy from the 1980s. The classes are identified from certain symbols such as expensive clothes, motor vehicles for the upper class. The powers of Australia are bestowed on a parliamentary democracy that is founded on the British system of government. Each state, territorial and federal elections are held after three or four years.
All citizens base the networked society of Australia on the notion of “fair go” where legislation has promoted equality and access to services. Marriage in Australia has heterosexual couples marrying because of love and to prove a long term emotional, financial and sexual allegiance (Cockerham 2007). Marriage in Australia is not purposely for a cohabiting relationship or child up-braining, but approximately 60% of people in Australia are married. It is noteworthy that the law does not recognize homosexual couples. Mothers are the primary caretakers of children, although fathers take increasing responsibilities for child care. Access to high quality education is a right to all citizens and the government provides compulsory education for primary and secondary levels to children age between the age of six and fifteen. The laws of Australia guarantee religious freedom, and there is no formal official religion. Australia is however described as a Christian country.
Most medical care is subsidized or paid by the government in Australia. Every citizen is however obliged to pay a little fee for the medical services. Public hospitals provide free health services. The government also takes much responsibility in preventing illness through vaccines and running campaigns to sensitize citizens. It is therefore justified to say that I agree with the American sociologist C. Wright that neither the life of a person and the history of a society can be comprehended singly.