The New York attacks that took place in 2001 in September and other attacks that subsequently followed targeting the Western countries has served as a continues stimuli to many academic disciplines. Since the 9/11, many sociologists have come out strongly is trying to develop a sociology subfield relating it to terrorism. Some of the common topics that appear while referring to sociology of terrorism include counter-terrorism, military spending, privacy issue, the conflict between Palestine and Israel and Algerian Independence war. The aim of this sub branch of sociology is to try to discover the ways in which all these happenings come to pass and tries to analyze how the society negotiates fear and understands terror (Altheide, 2009).
The early literatures on post 9/11 mostly featured citizen responses and policing of terror. Sociologists like Hoopes, Ramirez and Quinlan had their work on the first responders’ interactions like the rescue teams and the police with the communities. They all predicted that police organizations were out to change the styles that are fundamental on profiling individuals after the 9/11. Most agencies of different police forces were observed to alter their initial mission statement following the 9/11. Even the smallest and most local agencies of the police developed the kind of pressure to take part in terrorism issues (Altheide, 2009).
Some of the modern works of sociology have made use of social terms such as moral panic, symbolic interactionists, hypervigilance, and social justice. Symbolic interactionism has been used to refer to a main perspective of sociology that has its emphasis on social interaction at a micro scale. This perspective is important in other subfields like the social psychology and urban sociology. Hypervigilance has been used by sociologists to enhance the sensory sensitivity state together with behavior intensity aimed at detecting threats. Social justice is the idea of coming up with an institution or a society that has its foundation on solidarity and equality principles. Such principles understand and appreciate human rights while at the same time values human dignity (Altheide, 2009).
In addition to modern sociology quantitative lean, there are several other methodological barbs that have been suggested by sociologists. Some of the methods are meant to scientifically and effectively assess Homeland Security measures effects. Another methodological approach is the finding of the operational measures that are key in studying homeland security. Both homeland security and terrorism happen to be somehow new concepts in academicians and social scientists. Criminology in the traditional times made use of starting points that were quantitative amenable in the measuring of policing strategy effectiveness (Altheide, 2009).
Deviance refers to any behavior which goes against the social norms and is sufficient enough to be disapproved by the better part of the society. Deviance can either be non-criminal or criminal. Crime has been regarded as one of the major deviant behaviors affecting most societies. The Sociological discipline under which crime falls is referred to as criminology. The differential-association theory is a sociology theory that focuses on issues concerning the way people understand and learn deviance. The theory states that the environment is a major contributor in determining the types of norms members of a particular society discover to violate. A good example is in the case of a gang of juveniles offering a conducive environment to young people who end up being criminals. Such a gang defines itself as glorify and countercultural violence, crime and retaliation as away of accomplishing their social status. Members of any gang adapt to get deviant now that they conform and embrace to the norms of the gang in which they are in. The theory has been significant in the criminology field as it has its focus on criminality nature development (Erdwin, 1990).