To some extent, the U.S. is post-racial today, because some elements of racial injustices are still felt in the country. Racism in American schools affects students’ personalities, especially their self-esteems. Children, when asked about how they responded to racist acts, said that they choose one out of four reactions, “ignoring, explaining, joking, and confiding,” and only few of them mentioned, “fighting” (Manning 23).
Several researchers have concluded that students, who attend schools that are located in multicultural areas, are more likely to fail classes as these educational institutions usually offer education of low level. As a result, such students can stay in the same class for several years or be placed in special groups for lower level learners. Students of other races are put in low-ability groups, which influence their scholastic acquirements drastically. A study that considered the differences between the Black and White students’ vocabulary knowledge showed that the Black students graduate with lower than White students' results in vocabulary knowledge and leg behind by four years (Manning 37). When concerning students’ low performance, it is obvious that, if mocked at because of their race or culture, colored students feel that it is an insult of their whole family, race, and culture. This situation usually affects their comfort in school settings negatively. In addition, such students, unlike their counterparts, do not always participate in classroom activities, because they follow the popular stream, which says that if one does well at school, others will make fun of him. These students’ academic levels decline until they dropout. On the other hand, some students do not care as much about beliefs that can affect their education and future.
Families, in turn, have also a significant effect on students' education level. In addition, housing conditions affect children's ability to study at home, concentrate at school, and grow up in a positive environment (Hood, Kidd, and Morris 73). Researchers found that parents' education level usually determines their children's education levels. Minority groups, such as the African and Latin Americans in the USA often hold low levels of education; consequently, they do not work high-prestige jobs and earn low amount of money. As a result, children attend low-level preschools and live in poor neighborhoods. When children realize how the labor market operates and studies social laws around them, they see people of their race working low level jobs; this reality makes them indifferent to education issues.
During younger years of a child’s life, some parents, especially colored ones, do not pay enough attention to their kids’ readiness for school. This is a major cause for future racist insults in schools, because poorly prepared colored children possess lower level skills in reading and writing, unlike others, who are well prepared. This problem creates a wider gap between the two groups of children as they grow up. This gap tends to increase with time because every academic level has certain requirements that are supposed to be covered. This fact does not mean that all colored children receive a poor education from their parents, but statistically colored individuals comprise a large portion of people, who receive education and job of low level. Researches indicate that, if this education gap is eliminated at the very beginning, the educational differences between the Black and White students in the twelfth grade will decrease by more than fifty percent.
Some studies, however, have reported that the White and colored students demonstrate the same levels during the academic year (Hood, Kidd, and Morris 44). The only difference is seen at summer time; in such a way, when colored students come back to school the following year, they possess less knowledge in previous years’ courses than the White students do. The time that students spend with their parents without attending schools is the main factor here, because, unlike colored students, White students tend to continue progressing and reading during the summer time. African Americans are among the most affected by racism groups in the United States (Hood, Kidd, and Morris 63). Because of early stigma of the slave trade brutalities encountered by their parents and forefathers, this group developed a deep psychological aspect of racism. Although the media and education sector try to reduce the gap of racism, Afro-Americans still experience insults of xenophobia, supremacism, segregation, and mockery (Woloch 87). These incidents are a clear indication that racism is alive in the modern American community as some groups of people, especially the Whites, still assume superiority over other races.
African -Americans have to seek an effective mechanism against the insults they experience from the Whites. In this situation, the Whites often use racial slurs against their colleagues of other races even in learning institutions. As the latter formed minority groups during the period, there was no possible way for them to fight back and gain the sense of belonging in the white-dominated society; hence, they had successfully adopted the xenophobic copying mode. They have developed a high degree of antipathy towards the Whites, which is characterized by extreme hatred and fear. Usually, they do not allow themselves to come into any kind of unity with the Whites. Consequently, the Blacks never wanted to associate themselves with the Whites at any angle. They simply give space or resort to violence when threatened. However, the University of Alabama Black Faculty Association attempted to avoid any racist cases in this state university. For instance, the Association sought for conviction for the Whites, who engaged in using racial slurs. It managed to formulate rules that could be used to stop cases of enhancing racism in the United States.
On the other hand, Khalil Gibran Muhammad, in Condemnation of Blackness: Race, Crime, and the Making of Modern Urban America, managed to present a unique perspective on the issue. He tried to depict blackness as a natural catastrophe. In his book, he focuses on times when racism has perpetuated in the popular mind; consequently, Black people were associated with crime and aggression. Essentially, the Whites were considered a burden to Blacks, and vice versa. Violence behavior became a form of attaining confidence within the group of the Blacks (Muhammad 7). Despite the changing times, the author asserts that some outpourings of modern day racism still take place in America.
In their work on racism, Hood, Kidd, and Morris presented an extremely important aspect of racial differences among people living in America. Despite the fact that the authors focus on political inclinations of the Americans, they manage to examine comprehensively racial influences in making political decisions. These authors have managed to show that racism still exists in modern America. For instance, they indicated that, in the United States, African Americans have been made to develop behavior that justifies the White supremacy (Hood, Kidd, and Morris 14). Even today, the mobilization of the Blacks is done with racial intentions. This approach made Afro-Americans stay in their small cocoon without trying to challenge the Whites in any field. The supremacy attitude has made the Blacks suffer in poverty and fail to venture into scientific studies and researches (Hood, Kidd, and Morris 18).
William, Julius Wilson studied that racial barriers in America have dissolved, thus poverty among the urban blacks are less linked to racial prejudice (Wilson 125). Cases of poverty experienced among the urban blacks are caused by rapid changes in the economic landscape. More appropriate ways to end poverty among the blacks is to elect a government that is racial neutral. Other important corrective mechanisms to end poverty should involve policies to create more jobs and health care reform programs. Therefore, affirmative action would help in eliminating racial poverty. The affirmative action should incorporate social reform programs, which advocates for social rights, education rights, employment rights, health care rights (Wilson 127).
In The Great Wells of Democracy: The Meaning of Race in American Life, Marable Manning reviews Black experience and racial politics of the 21st century and its implications for the United States, which can be applied to the deep-rooted racism in the American mind (Manning 108). The book acknowledges that America, especially the United States, has had a long history of racial dispute and discrimination. Despite efforts to eliminate the effects of this social disease, small aspects of racist treatment will continue to be exhibited as long as the Blacks and Whites coexist. The author states that, after the African Americans, the Latin Americans are the second most affected by racism group. In the past, people of Mexican origin were lynched and brutally punished by the colonialists. The Mexicans were forcefully deported by the American authorities during the Great Depression. Some of the crucial elements highlighted by Marable Manning, which are associated with the liberation that have helped individuals attain independence, include individual uprising against any form of victimization and oppression that proves the ineffectiveness of those who stay in power (46). In addition, Manning demonstrates the benefits of personal freedom (57). Through the illustration of the ways of attaining freedom from exploitative authorities, the author indicates various approaches that warrant its adoption. For the citizens, it is clear that the democratic leadership that insists on protection of the individuals’ rights in every aspect signifies freedom. Manning asserts that, despite this outcome being thorough, it is important to make efforts that will grant every common person with adequate respect and trust. On the other hand, it is vital to have a government that makes sure that citizens are free from any form of victimization or exploitation. In this case, the systems of the government should be restructured to reflect the need of enhancing personal freedom. The consolidation of the efforts of citizens and government is the pledge of maximum individual independence. In The Great Wells of Democracy, Marable Manning attempted to bring forth the hidden fact about inherently high levels of racism in America. He asserted that the world is made to believe that this vice has gone long ago, but the reality is different. Moreover, the author asserts that racism resulted in a high degree of segregation between different racial groups in the United States (Manning 25). Manning agrees that the most known racist confrontations were seen in the United States between the Whites and African Americans. For many years, the Blacks and Whites have tried not to share anything. Today, after many years of development and progression, cases of racism are still witnessed in some areas of America, though of a light nature.
Many researchers have studied the issue of the post-racial era in the United States and developed a different meaning of the term “post-racial era.” It can be argued that the term fails to describe something true, tangible, or real because it has been devised by the Whites for avoiding dealing with the current issues of racism and problems of racial discrimination in American society. Except African and Latin Americans, in recent times, people of the Arab origin have faced a lot of discrimination based on racism (Gutman 56). After the September 11 attacks, the laws governing their immigration were tightened significantly. The law, for example, required their origin to be clearly identified.The existence of racism in Alabama can be acknowledged by different scholars. This interview is a manifestation of the remaining links to allude to the fact that the United States is still racist, except for the fact that it is not so widespread.
Despite these positive tendencies, some cases of racial discrimination were witnessed during the U.S. Presidential Election 2012. It should be mentioned that the fact that Barack Obama is a Black-American was not significant, because the U.S. had gone through radical political reconstruction in the recent decades (Hood, Kidd, and Morris 41). Indeed, the reconstruction of the United States policy and social consciousness caused many changes in the country. First, the constitutional democracy was upheld; thus, the presidential powers were limited and reduced. It is necessary to note that anti-reconstruction leaders, such as Andrew Johnson, were unsuccessful in managing the reconstruction process of the United States in the past. The modern reconstruction ensured that the Congress had the power to formulate the policy aimed at uniting all Americans, despite their race or views. It also caused the adoption of the constitutional amendment, which allowed all citizens to vote, regardless of their race, previous serving punishment, and skin color. As a result, six senators elected to the Congress were African-Americans. During this period, the military courts implemented the directives on racial equality, which were passed by the U.S. Congress (Hood, Kidd, and Morris 102). Moreover, the Congress outlawed the intimidation of the African-Americans from voting, racial discrimination, especially in the public domain. The other aspect of reconstruction led to the establishment of the constitutional democracy that allowed citizens elect their preferred candidates for the President, Senators, and Congressmen in a free and fair manner, without any discrimination and intimidation. Indeed, it continued the long struggles between Democrats and the Republicans for gaining control over the United States. In this regard, the reconstruction led to political freedom and advancement in the country.
Even though, post-racial issues are still persistent in the United States, the country adopted a campaign strategy to minimize their effects. This permanent campaign can be regarded as a complicated historical and social concept. This concept outlines crucial changes that have taken place in the U.S. political history. Such changes in American politics evolved from old patronage party organizations to a modern polling that is driven by computer technology (Hood, Kidd, and Morris 94). It implies that media facilitated the creation of a new system in American politics. Technological and media developments have helped in understanding the significance of the permanent changes in modern America of the Obama years. To this end, political consultants made use of advanced technology and media models to offer better ideas for political campaigns. The technology and media tools enabled the political consultants to replace the party bosses. As a result, new technological modes of campaigning were put in place.
In conclusion, the problem of racism in the United States gets wider as children grow up. Some parents unintentionally pass to their teenage children with certain behaviors that younger individuals take as their cultural identity. Some colored students, especially the Blacks, think that speaking English correctly or studying is considered a threat to their cultural identities. In this regard, most Black students in America do not participate in classes, because of this imaginary false identity, which is mostly acquired from parents and family members. Nowadays, racial issues have fallen by the wayside in social and political life of the American nation. Despite the fact, some issues of racial intolerance are still reported; therefore, it is difficult to state that the U.S. is in its post-racial era.