This is a festival held in order to commemorate the cleansing of the temple under Judas Maccabeus in 164 B.C. It took place after Antiochus Epiphanies who had defiled it by sacrificing a burnt offering on the altar inform of a pig. The festival celebrations did take place towards the end of December. It is on this day that the teachers of the law came to ask Jesus to prove that he was the messiah. This is a significant time as Jesus had also came to earth for the same purpose, to deliver the humanity from their sins just like the cleansing of the altar after it was defiles.
This was a walkway, which had large stones roofs inside the walls of the courtyard Temple. The fact that Jesus walked on this pathway, which was higher than the ground signified his elevation from the status of any other human being. He is the son of God and therefore, highly exalted to be above the rest.
The word sheep refers to the followers of Christ. Jesus did consider them as the sheep and Jesus the shepherd whom they follow. Sheep were as humble and submissive animals. As such, Jesus refers to the people who fully obeyed and followed his teaching as sheep signifying himself as their leader, the shepherd.
This was a term used to refer to the high priests and judges in the Bible. This was a prediction that there a king will come, who would save the world and that Jesus was this king. The Pharisees and the other teachers of the law did not get along well with Jesus’ explanations. Despite the fact, that he had done marvelous miracles they did not believe that he was king. Therefore, they wanted Jesus to prove that he was the real messiah, the king and the high priest.