The writings highlight the elements required for the theme analysis, which in this case is designated for assignment. The theme in this concept explains seemingly disparate events.    Blacks were given rights due to the South losing the civil war.  The rights given to blacks due to the civil war were stricken by “Black Codes”. The paper will explain some of the rights that were given and those restricted. Native Americans got civilized with American ideologies, yet they lost out on some things (Brooks, 34). Although African Americans and Native Americans were granted freedoms as a matter of law, in practice, such freedoms were constrained by legislative acts, among other things.

The book attempts to explain the paradox stated in the book “Battle”. Even though wide American majorities say they are in support of an enterprise system that is free with its basis on size, scope and limited government, constituting   a state government that is federal; this trend has increased rapidly for the past 10 years (Brooks, 34).  Limited government advocates mostly rely on arguments that are driven by data and are complex as they continue to use moral language to cover their arguments. This made in an appealing manner to win the Americans hearts instead of their minds (Brooks, 44) In the process of formulating this claim, Brooks depended solely on the psychology work of Professor Jonathan Haidt. His work was concerned about the process of human moral judgments than reasonable ones. The answer was that, for the right to be in a position to defend enterprise that is free, it has to be based on moral foundations.

Brooks’s book creates a case morally aimed to allow the enterprise system that is free in three sections. First, his argument is that only free enterprise will lead to the desired happiness with basis on success earned.  This part constitutes a large play from his work of happiness found on “the Battle Gross National Happiness”. Freedom according to Brooks is in enterprise which gives fairness with truth and rewards on merit. He provides a statement that, freedom is achieved in the enterprise, when the disadvantaged, vulnerable and poor flourish in life. For this part, Brooks refers to a number of data statistics concerning reducing poverty in the world from increased trade and globalization, as well as statistics concerning limited government breeding charity.

The other half, which is the second half of The Road to Freedom clearly shows Brooks description of     “Statist Quo” in America and gives a vision which is alternate for the required government role.  He forms a claim  that the only state function that is legitimate is the one  limited social safety net provision and with market failures correction ( Brooks, 24). Drawing heavily from the work of Austrian economist Friedrich Hayek, Brooks  lays these claims as the only legitimate state functions for providing  social safety  that is limited  and the  market failures correction as the state can act with effectiveness and efficiency. By Combating the thing he believes is not fair which is criticizing the right, Brooks talks of most believing that it is much appropriate for the government to provide some safety net for its citizens. It is not acceptable for a member of American wealthy society to move on with no basic medical care accessibility, lack of food, and shelter.” He goes on to say and I quote, “But the safety net is not a way to increase material equality, or a way to steal any of it but is the most sad risks out of life, a means to give out rewards to groups with basis on demographics or political clout, or an origin of rewards to the middle class.”[45]

The Road to Freedom was broadly viewed again by both critics and supporters. Congressman Paul Ryan (R, Wisc.). They gave the book a cover statement that claimed that Arthur Brooks had knowledge as was known by the America’s Founders .The enterprise that is free undermines the case of moral for human liberty and freedom (Brooks, 64). Economic freedom gives rise to material prosperity that is hard to understand, though it is the only form of the economy that promotes people to freely pursue and reach their destinies, cultivate the self-responsibility character, and make communities strong. Brooks clearly faces the developing threat to freedom in the economy, fulfillment and satisfaction of the average human and gives the choices fundamentally for Americans to get back to the required path set.

However, some critics had a notion that arguments of Brook simplified to a great extent the arguments morally for freedom in the system of enterprise through ignoring the hard questions or by use of comparisons hyperbolically. A good example is the issue of the Atlantic. Clive Crook with the complete answer of Brooks as to whether or not America is a society of opportunity claimed that the question of focus is not whether America is a society of opportunity, but the degree of America as an opportunity society. Brooks’s forms an argument that America is an opportunity land due to the fact that poor parent’s children develop to be better people unlike the children of rich parents who under develop (Brooks, 54). This is much true, but the proof is much clear that United States does not do that well on the measure of mobility as compared to the other countries. Brooks might be in disagreement with those findings outlined but it is a serious book weakness that he fails to even refer to them.

In a second example, Noah Kristula-Green gave writing for The Daily Beast “this is a book about United States policy of domestic, but not the advantages of adopting capitalism in contrast to communism. Arguments such as this are anachronistic. Given that Brooks put his writings, an original communism was a choice with some of those agitating for the United States. These global comparisons could only signify that Brooks could avoid confronting the lack of equality in existence in America. Why then does America avoid discussing the inequality topic? It is much true for one to avoid inequality discussion, which then means they are not doing enough to answer or handle the questions relating to inequality (56)

Concerning American culture, the War Battle book of Brooks has faith that America is imprisoned in a war of culture. It is  either  America progresses to be an exceptional nation  with organizations  based on  the  free enterprise principles,  entrepreneurship  dependence and rewards influenced  by  forces of the market, or it will become like Europe  which has European-style statism with its  ground in expanding bureaucracies ( Brooks ,58). Brooks notes that many have made an effort to put away the “party of tea” forms of demonstration, and all of the town protests as the work of those considered extremists, agents or backwoodsmen who are ignorant.

As observed from the American history, racial inequality has always been witnessed. African American people have been subjected to social, political and economic injustice. Not to forget other unfair treatment practices, brutality and oppression had become an order of the day. The two “human enemies”; inequality and racism, had pushed for the foundation of various American colonies in the journey of the quest for universal freedom for American citizens of African origin.

In the state of Mississippi, a conflict arose between the black freed men and the state militia. The conflict occurred as the militia tried to search for arms among the black community at Grenada, Mississippi. The militia apprehended huge number of muskets, missiles from the Negroes. This occurrence was due to the enforcement of new laws enacted by the government and state of Mississippi State during the Civil War to grant Civil Rights on Freedmen. Even though the Thirteenth Amendment provided them freedom, the state of Mississippi did not become acquainted with the 2nd Amendment right of freedmen. Here the new state governments in the previous Confederate states tried to control the freedom of emancipation established by the former slaves. The southern states, including Mississippi, passed Acts that were later known as the Black Codes. The codes restricted the civil rights and freedoms of the ex-slaves and at the end they were not paid their wages after a hard labor. This legislation restricted the rights of the freedmen and also made it plain that whites in Mississippi were determined to exploit and marginalize the black citizens. The federal government was then obligated to move with speed to defend the rights of freedmen in the south and the State of Mississippi. This eventually led to the enactment of the Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1875 Amendments.

In the U.S, the Blacks were considered as a distinct In Unites States, an individual is considered “Black” when he/she is of African origin. The extreme form of binary racism in U.S is the popularly known “one-drop rule” which was witnessed in a period after the American civil war. In Germany, the Jews were taken to be of different racial group due to their religious background.  In E. Asia, all Japanese, Chinese, Vietnamese and Koreans were treated as separate races. In African today, Hut and Tutsi are often treated as separate racial group. Although the above illustrations give biological descent more weight in describing race, it is implied that racial classification is merely constructed through multifaceted chronological and cultural dynamics.     Although some believe that high crime rates, health problems, poor education, and unemployment are reasons that discourage living in the African American ghetto, others believe that affordability, job opportunities, improved education systems, and supportive health organizations encourage it. A great number of individuals who fear living in ghetto assert that the place is totally insecure as people may be stubbed or even murdered there. Most of the crimes committed in America are mostly carried out by the blacks living in the Ghetto. Most of the places burdened with abject poverty are normally related to the black citizens in the American ghetto societies. This is a factor that is normally related to criminal activities. Individuals who lack job opportunities are idle most of the times that makes them prone to criminal activities.

Ideally, what make African American citizens in U.S to seek for universal freedom are the observable differences in social, cultural and economic inequality. History shows that the African American citizens have been subjected to various forms of racial in equalities in various aspects. These include; slavery, discriminatory housing facilities, diffuse discrimination, discrimination in educational institutions, prejudiced employment opportunities, and geographical and genocide displacements.

Even after the 14th U.S constitutional amendment that led to the end of slavery and guaranteed freedom to all citizens, some others forms of racial prejudice evolved later. For instance, the emergency of second-class citizens denied African Americans some legal rights.  Blacks were then not allowed to exercise their voting rights. Another observation was made on farming where the African dream of “forty acres and mule” becomes a nightmare. Second-class citizenship led to the exclusion of African Americans from enjoying facilities in public transportation, public education institutions and restaurants.  The geographical displacement and genocide on Native Americans (especially the Blacks) is a clear illustration on how racial segregation had manifested itself in U.S.   Towards the end of 19thcentury, the Native Americans had completely been pushed to largely confined reserves.         

In U.S today, racial segregation is openly practiced in the context of ordinary interactions (mundane micro-interactions) in workplaces, on streets, in classrooms, restaurants, and other social places. A report by Gallup (1997) postulates that; approximately 50% of black respondents had encountered (in one month) at least one kind of discrimination on their mandate micro-interactions.  The report had documented some practice instances of various forms of discriminations that African American citizens encounter in their daily struggle for a better life.

In stores, Black customers are treated and monitored with suspicion on fear for shoplifting than white customers. Moreover, the report indicated that in restaurants, middle class blacks are served slower that white customers who had even came later than them. In white universities, black college students (especially male) were treated with suspicion and surveillance by campus police. In addition, the report outlined that on average, it will take more time for an African American individual to get a taxi than it will take a white person. All these instances are what always drive a black man to push for his freedom in the so called “foreign land”.

Conclusions

From our initial discussion, it’s clear that blacks were given rights due to the South losing the civil war.  The rights given to blacks due to the civil war, were stricken by “Black Codes” .The rights that were given were restricted (Brooks, 34). Native American’s have been civilized with American ideologies, but then they lost on some things. They were also granted freedoms as a matter of law and practice but such freedoms were constrained by legislative acts, among other things.

 The concept of racial prejudice arose not only due to biological differences in ancestry, but also as a result of differences in our physical characteristics.  Racial inequality is the greatest enemy of African American citizens. With racial segregation, African American citizens have found it difficult to go on smoothly with their daily activities. The above analysis indicates that, in every continent, there exist at least some aspects of racism. In addition, it is clear that the concept of racisms differ among state such as in US, Africa, E. Asia and Germany.

 The main reason behind the African American’s Quest for Universal freedom is the emergence of racial inequality that had manifested itself in the American History. As witnessed, African American had been subjected to all forms of discrimination cutting across all aspects of live; education, employment, land, religion, health, transportation and judicial systems.

In the attempt to seek for universal freedom for African American citizens, the black activists have encountered several huddles. A critical analysis of the US judicial system reveals the Supreme Court (in several occasions) as main inhibitor towards the achievement of African American’s Universal Freedom.

As opposed to the Supreme Court, the Congress has in a number of occasions, contributed towards the creation of an environment free from all kinds of racial inequality. Under the 14th Amendment, the Congress ensures that there is equal protection for all citizens’ laws and   voting rights. It is through the congress that African American citizens can vote a person of their own race to represent their minority interests. A live example can be observed when the blacks elected their “own blood” to state house who increased the number of African nominees to judges in the Supreme Court. President Obama has been in the forefront in combating all forms of racial prejudice in United States. Moreover, the US Congress (federal organization) has enforced federal laws which prohibiting racial prejudice and other forms of discrimination In the US’s labor market, most employees are covered in EEOC racial incarceration cases.  Moreover, the US congress had ratified the 14th Constitutional amendment Act with eliminated racism and provided citizens with a chance to sue any state practicing both individual and institutional racism.

In order to achieve a unified social, political and economic environment in US, it is recommended that each and every individual should make an effort to fight discrimination. From an African American point of view, the fight against racial discrimination will only be achieved through the Congress rather than through the Supreme Court.  This is due to observed weak integrity of the Supreme Court in fighting racial prejudice. Lastly, let us not forget to join and support various antiracial groups such as NAACP and the National Council of La Raza to fight this “enemy” (Fielder 22).  

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