Turabian style can be regarded as really exquisite as it was specifically designed for students of Kate Turabian, the Chicago University dissertation secretary. What makes it different from Chicago style is that Turabian combines a mix of sub-styles based on the Chicago formatting style. As a rule, students are mainly required to format their History papers according to the guidelines of Turabian. However, it may sometimes be used in other areas of study as well.

Many people always wonder what made Kate Turabian devise a whole new formatting style. To put it simply, she just wanted to assist her students with this daunting challenge of formatting academic papers. Since Chicago style is mainly applied to formatting scholarly books, she wanted to focus merely on formatting scholarly papers (and provide key information only regarding formatting papers). Therefore, Turabian’s narrowing the focus to the requirements of scholarly paper formatting rather than book formatting has really helped students in academic work. To put it short, the guidelines omit many of the principles applicable only for book formatting.

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Turabian style gives students an opportunity to select either a parenthetical method or notes method for citing material. Either one or the other should be used (but not a mix of both).

  • Parenthetical method. Students organize in-text citations according to the principle of MLA style. At the end of the paper, students should provide a Works Cited page.
  • Notes and bibliography method. Students are supposed to use foot notes or endnotes and provide a bibliography page.

The formatting guidelines presented in this article will focus on the rules of Notes and Bibliography method.

Actually, notes and bibliography is what differs Turabian from MLA or other styles. As a rule, when teachers indicate that you should format your paper in Turabian, be sure that they expect exactly Notes and Bibliography citation style.

Most frequently, students have numerous questions regarding endnotes and footnotes. In particular, they are willing to know when to use each of the citation forms.

How to Differentiate Endnotes from Footnotes?

When you write academic papers, you frequently feel the urge to quote or cite some information or facts taken from the outside sources. To avoid plagiarism issues and not to undermine the rules of academic integrity, make sure to provide proper citations to make sure the origin of the source is evident to the reader (and your professor as well).

Besides, citation is strongly needed when you provide data or information that cannot be regarded as general knowledge. Sometimes, though, it can be hard to define what is regarded as common knowledge and what is not. It all depends on a subject and the field of discipline. Therefore, if there are some facts that may not be known by many people or that are doubtful, it is always needed to cite them.

Footnotes or endnotes are also used not only for citations but also for leaving comments/ interpretations/ explanations to your readers. If some information may be confusing, make sure to leave a note interpreting it.

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How to Insert a Footnote

  1. Place your cursor in the very place where you would like your note to appear (to be more precise, only a number of the note will be written in the text – not the very note).
  2. Click on the “Reference” in MS Word to find more extended options of inserting footnotes or endnotes (depending on which you want to use in the paper).
  3. As soon as you click on either a footnote or endnote option, a number (also called superscript) will appear next to the phrase you want to make a comment to or provide a citation.
  4. At the same time, the cursor will move down to the bottom of the page, and you will be able to type the required text.
  5. When you have finished writing the note and are planning to move further with typing the text of the paper, simply go back to the main body and continue working.

Luckily, numbering and formatting of notes is an automatic process in MS Word, so you will not be confused about it. In case you make some changes, such as replace or delete the notes, the changes will be automatically applied as well.

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How to Cite a Book in Turabian?

Underline the title of the book or put it in italics.

How to Cite an Article in Turabian?

Write the article title in quotation marks.

How to Cite an Article or an Entry from an Encyclopedia?

Include the citation in the footnotes but do not add encyclopedia to the bibliography.